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Field Listing :: Political parties and leaders
This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations and their leaders.
Political parties and leaders
Afghanistan note - the Ministry of Justice licensed 84 political parties as of December 2012
Albania Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; New Democracy Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; New Democratic Spirit or FRD [Bamir TOPI]; Party for Justice and Integration or PDI [Shpetim IDRIZ]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskel MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]
Algeria Algerian Popular Movement or MPA; Front for Change or FC; Front for Justice and Development or El Adala; Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Movement for National Reform, Islamic Renaissance Movement, and Movement of the Society of Peace or Hamas); Movement of the Society of Peace or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD; National Reform Movement or Islah [Ahmed ABDESLAM]; New Dawn Party or PFJ; Oath of 54 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fauzi REBAINE]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Islamic Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine AIT AHMED]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
American Samoa Democratic Party [Oreta M. TOGAFAU]; Republican Party [Tautai A. F. FAALEVAO]
Andorra there are four political parties at the national level: Andorra for Change or ApC [Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]; Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT], coalition including Liberal Party (PRA) and Reformist Coalition; Greens of Andorra [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ]; Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY]; note - there are also several smaller parties at the Parish level (one is Lauredian Union)
Angola Broad Convergence for Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Lucas NGONDA]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party); New Democracy Electoral Union or ND [Quintino de MOREIRA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975); Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
note: 21 other parties registered to participate in the national election in August 2012
Anguilla Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Brent DAVIS]; Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]; Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA); Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Argentina Broad Progressive Front or FAP [Hermes BINNER]; Civic Coalition or CC (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO); Dissident Peronists (PJ Disidente) or Federal Peronism (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the PJ, UCR, and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Peronist (or Justicialist) Party or PJ [vacant]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Mario BARLETTA]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; numerous provincial parties
Armenia Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABIAN]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARIAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISIAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHIAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSARUKIAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]; Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]
Aruba Aliansa/Aruban Social Movement or MSA [Robert WEVER]; Aruban Liberal Organization or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Movement or MPA [Monica ARENDS-KOCK]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Mike EMAN]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; Real Democracy or PDR [Andin BIKKER]; RED [Rudy LAMPE]; Workers Political Platform or PTT [Gregorio WOLFF]
Australia Australian Greens Party [Christine MILNE]; Australian Labor Party [Julia GILLARD]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [Tony ABBOTT]; National Party of Australia [Warren TRUSS]
Austria Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Josef BUCHER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Michael SPINDELEGGER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Werner FAYMANN]; The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]; Communist Party of Austria of KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]; "Team Stronach for Austria" [Frank STRONACHI]
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP [Sardar JALALOGLU]; Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]; Civil Unity Party [Sabir HACIYEV]; Classic People's Front of Azerbaijan [Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU]; Democratic Reform Party [Asim MOLLAZADE]; Great Creation Party [Fazil Gazanfaroglu MUSTAFAYEV]; Hope (Umid) Party [Iqbal AGAZADE]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAYILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Motherland Party [Fazail AGAMALI]; Musavat (Equality) [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Open Society Party [Rasul GULIYEV, in exile in the US]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE and Ayaz MUTALIBOV (in exile)]; Social Welfare Party [Hussein KAZIMLI]; United Popular Azerbaijan Front Party or AXCP [Ali KARIMLI]; Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]; Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Bahamas, The Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert MINNIS]; Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE]
Bahrain none: note - political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law
Bangladesh Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Communist Party of Bangladesh or CPB [Manjurul A. KHAN]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh or BDB [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [multiple leaders]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
Barbados Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Freundel STUART]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [David COMISSIONG]
Belarus pro-government parties: Belarusian Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolay ULAKHOVICH, chairman]; Communist Party of Belarus or KPB [Igor KARPENKO]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice [Vasiliy ZADNEPRYANYY]
opposition parties: Belarusian Christian Democracy Party [Pavel SEVERINETS] (unregistered); Belarusian Party of the Left "Fair World" [Sergey KALYAKIN]; Belarusian Popular Front or BPF [Aleksey YANUKEVICH]; Belarusian Social-Democratic Hramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Belarusian Social Democratic Party Hramada ("Assembly") or BSDPH [Anatoliy LEVKOVICH]; Belarusian Social Democratic Party People's Assembly ("Narodnaya Hramada") [Nikolay STATKEVICH] (unregistered); Christian Conservative Party or BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; European Belarus Campaign [Andrey SANNIKOV]; Party of Freedom and Progress [Vladimir NOVOSYAD] (unregistered); "Tell the Truth" Campaign [Vladimir NEKLYAYEV]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]
Belgium Flemish parties: Christian Democratic and Flemish or CDV [Wouter BEKE]; Flemish Liberals and Democrats or Open VLD [Alexander DE CROO]; Groen! [Wouter VAN BESIEN] (formerly AGALEV, Flemish Greens); Libertarian, Direct, Democratic or LDD (formerly Dedecker's List) [Jean-Marie DEDECKER]; New Flemish Alliance or N-VA [Bart DE WEVER]; Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A [Bruno TOBBACK]; Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Gerolf ANNEMANS]
Francophone parties: Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Olivier DELEUZE, Emily HOYOS]; Humanist and Democratic Center or CDH [Benoit LUTGEN]; Popular Party or PP [ Mischael MODRIKAMEN]; Reform Movement or MR [Charles MICHEL]; Socialist Party or PS [Thierry GIET]; other minor parties
Belize National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR; National Reform Party or NRP [Cornelius DUECK]; People's National Party or PNP [Wil MAHEIA]; People's United Party or PUP [John BRICENO]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean BARROW]; Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Paul MORGAN]; We the People Reform Movement or WTP [Hipolito BAUTISTA]
Benin African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN]; Alliance for Dynamic Democracy or ADD; Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP; Benin Renaissance or RB [Rosine SOGLO]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; Force Cowrie for an Emerging Benin or FCBE; Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Theophile NATA]; Key Force or FC [Lazare SÈHOUÉTO]; Movement for the People's Alternative or MAP [Olivier CAPO-CHICHI]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or PRD [Dominique HOUNGNINOU]; Social Democrat Party or PSD [Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Union for Democracy and National Solidarity or UDS [Sacca LAFIA]; Union for the Relief or UPR [Issa SALIFOU]; Union Makes the Nation or UN
note: approximately 20 additional minor parties
Bermuda Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Marc BEAN]; One Bermuda Alliance or OBA [Thad HOLLIS]
Bhutan Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (Druk Phuensum Tshogpa) or DPT [Jigme THINLEY]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tshering TOBGAY]
Bolivia Bacada Indigena or BI; Bolivia-National Convergence or PPB-CN [vacant]; Fearless Movement or MSM [Juan DE GRANADO Cosio]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]; National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]; People or Gente [Roman LOAYZA]; Social Alliance or AS [Rene JOAQUINO]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB-BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants' Party-New Croat Initiative or HSS-NHI [Ante COLAK]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifat DOLIC]; Democratic Party or DP [Dragan CAVIC]; Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Bojan Zec FILIPOVIC]; Nasa Stranka or NS [Denis GRATZ]; New Socialist Party or NSP [Zdravko KRSMANOVIC]; Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBiH [Amer JERLAGIC]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; 'People's' Party of Work for Progress or NSRzB [Mladen IVANKOVIC-LIJANOVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Mirko BLAGOJEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of BiH or SDP BiH [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Nermin PECANAC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Botswana Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Gilson SALESHANDO]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Daniel KWELAGOBE]; Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Gomolemo MOTSWALEDI]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Bernard BALIKANI]; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS [Themba JOINA]; New Democratic Front or NDF [Dick BAYFORD]
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Brazil Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]; Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo DOS SANTOS]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Sergio GUERRA]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; the Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL); Freedom and Socialism Party or PSOL [Ivan VALENTE]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Philippe GUEDON]; Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]; National Mobilization Party or PMN [Celso BRANT]; Party of the Republic or PR [Sergio Victor TAMER]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao PEREIRA FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Francisco DORNELLES]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]; Social Democracy Party or PSD [Gilberto KASSAB]; Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]
British Virgin Islands Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Ethlyn SMITH]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Orlando SMITH]; United Party or UP [Gregory MADURO]; Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]
Brunei National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
Bulgaria Agrarian National Union or ANU [Stefan LICHEV]; National Union Attack (Ataka) [Volen SIDEROV]; Blue Coalition [Ivan KOSTOV and Emil KABAIVANOV] (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF and DSB); Bulgarian New Democracy [Borislav RALCHEV]; Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB [Sergei STANISHEV] (coalition of parties dominated by BSP); Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Gergyovden [Petar STOYANOVICH]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Liberal Initiative for Democratic European Development or LIDER [Khristo KOVACHKI]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Stability and Progress or NDSV [Hristina HRISTOVA] (formerly National Movement Simeon II or NMS2); New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Order, Law, Justice or RZS [Yane YANEV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Emil KABAIVANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Agrarians [Anastasia MOZER]
Burkina Faso African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO]; Citizen's Popular Rally or RPC [Antoine QUARE]; Coalition of Democratic Forces of Burkina or CFD-B [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Democratic and Popular Rally or RDP [Nana THIBAUT]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Soumane TOURE]; Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Ali LANKOANDE]; Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Hama Arba DIALLO]; Party for National Rebirth or PAREN [Jeanne TRAORE]; Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Antoine KARGOUGOU]; Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO]; Republican Party for Integration and Solidarity or PARIS; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Fidele HIEN]; Union for Progress and Reform; Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende STANISLAS]; Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY]; Union of Sankarist Parties or UPS [Ernest Nongma OUEDRAOGO]
Burma All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP [NAING NGWE THEIN]; National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE, Dr.THAN NYEIN]; National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]; National Unity Party or NUP [TUN YE]; Rakhine Nationalities Development Party or RNDP [Dr. AYE MG]; Shan Nationalities Democratic Party [SAI AIKE PAUNG]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [SHWE MANN, HTAY OO]; numerous smaller parties
Burundi governing parties: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA]; National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA]; Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Bonaventure NIYOYANKANA]
note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA]; National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
Cambodia Cambodian People's Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; Cambodian National Rescue Party or NRP [SAM RANGSI also spelled SAM RAINSY]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Nationalist Party or NP former Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [SAO RANY]
note: the NRP is a merger between the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA] and the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP
Cameroon Cameroon People's Democratic Movement or CPDM [Paul BIYA]; Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou Ndam NJOYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole DAISSALA]; Movement for the Liberation and Development of Cameroon or MLDC [Marcel YONDO]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Maigari BELLO BOUBA]; Progressive Movement or MP; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John FRU NDI]; Union of Peoples of Cameroon or UPC [Augustin Frederic KODOCK]
Canada Bloc Quebecois [Daniel PAILLE]; Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Robert RAE (interim)]; New Democratic Party [Thomas MULCAIR]
Cape Verde African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic and Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Jorge SANTOS]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
Cayman Islands People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Kurt TIBBETTS]; United Democratic Party or UDP [McKeeva BUSH]
Central African Republic Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Jacques MBOLIEDAS]; Central African Democratic Rally or RDC [Andre KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC [Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Forum for Modernity or FODEM [Charles MASSI]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Londo Association or LONDO; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD [David DACKO]; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Martin ZIGUELE ]; National Convergence or KNK; National Unity Party or PUN [Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE]; New Alliance for Progress or NAP [Jean-Jacques DEMAFOUTH]; Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; People's Union for the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE]
Chad Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP; Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Chile Broad Social Movement or MAS; Clean Chile Vote Happy or CLVF (including Broad Social Movement, Country Force, and Independent Regionalist Party or PRI); Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena], Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Patricio MELERO], and Chile First [Vlado MIROSEVIC]); Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ignacio WALKER], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia], and Socialist Party or PS [Osvaldo ANDRADE]); Partido Ecologista del Sur; Together We Can Do More (including Communist Party or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle], and Humanist Party or PH [Danilo MONTEVERDE])
China Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping]; eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Christmas Island none
Cocos (Keeling) Islands none
Colombia Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ]; Conservative Party or PC [Efrain CEPEDA Sarabia]; Green Party [Jorge LONDONO Ulloa; Enrique PENALOSA]; Liberal Party or PL [Simon GAVIRIA Munoz]; National Integration Party or PIN [Angel ALIRIO Moreno]; Radical Change or CR [Antonio GUERRA de la Espriella]; Social National Unity Party or U Party [Juan Francisco LOZANO Ramirez]
note: Colombia has seven major political parties, and numerous smaller movements
Comoros Camp of the Autonomous Islands or CdIA (a coalition of parties organized by the islands' presidents in opposition to the Union President); Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros or CRC [AZALI Assowmani]; Front National pour la Justice or FNJ [Ahmed RACHID] (Islamic party in opposition); Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC [Abbas DJOUSSOUF]; Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP [Ali MROUDJAE]; Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND [Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE]
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]; Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]; Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC; Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]; Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]; People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph KABILA]; Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]; Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI]; Union of Mobutuist Democrats or UDEMO [MOBUTU Nzanga]
Congo, Republic of the Action Movement for Renewal or MAR; Congolese Labour Party or PCT; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR; United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]; many smaller parties
Cook Islands Cook Islands Party or CIP [Henry PUNA]; Democratic Party or Demo [Dr. Terepai MAOATE]
Costa Rica Accessibility Without Exclusion or PASE [Oscar Andres LOPEZ Arias]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Elizabeth FONSECA]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]; Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or PFA [Jose MERINO del Rio]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Bernal JIMENEZ]; National Restoration Party or PRN; Patriotic Alliance [Mariano FIGUERES Olsen]; Popular Vanguard [Trino BARRANTES Araya]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Gerardo VARGAS]
Cote d'Ivoire Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]; Democratic Liberty for the Republic or LIDER [Mamadou KOULIBALY]; Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Freedom and Democracy for the Republic or LIBRE [Mamadou KOULIBALY]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Miaka OURETO]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francois KOUABLAN]; Opposition Movement of the Future or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]; over 144 smaller registered parties
Croatia Croatian Civic Party or HGS [Ante OBAD]; Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Vladimir SISLJAGIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Tomislav KARAMARKO]; Croatian Laborists-Labor Party [Dragutin LESAR]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Daniel SRB]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]; Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Radimir CACIC]; Croatian Pure Party of Rights-Ante Starcevic or HSP-AS [Ruza TOMASIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Kukuriku Coalition (consists of SDP, HNS, IDS, and HSU) [Zoran MILANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
Cuba Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Raul CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]
Curacao Frente Obrero Liberashon (Workers' Liberation Front) or FOL [Anthony GODETT]; Movementu Futuro Korsou or MFK [Gerrit SCHOTTE]; Movishon Antia Nobo or MAN [Eunice EISDEN]; Partido Antia Restruktura or PAR [Emily DE JONGH-ELHAGE]; Partido pa Adelanto I Inovashon Soshal or PAIS [Alex ROSARIA]; Partido Nashonal di Pueblo or PNP [Humphrey DAVELAAR]; Pueblo Soberano or PS [Helmin WIELS]
Cyprus area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADES]; European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDES]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; Movement for Social Democrats or EDEK [Yiannakis OMIROU]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Andros KYPRIANOU]; United Democrats or EDI [Praxoula ANTONIADOU]
area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Mehmet CAKICI]; Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Yusuf ALKIM]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTAS]; Freedom and Reform Party or ORP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Irsen KUCUK]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Cyprus Party or YKP [Murat KANATLI]; Politics for the People Party or HIS [Ahmet YONLUER]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cyprus Party or BKP [Izzet IZCAN]
Czech Republic Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Zdenka MARKOVA]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr NECAS]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Pirate Party [Ivan BARTOS]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA]; Green Party [Ondrej LISKA]; Liberal Democrats or LIDEM [Karolina PEAKE]; North Bohemians; Ostravak Movement; Public Affairs or VV [Radek JOHN]; Tradice Odpovednost Prosperita 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG]
Denmark Conservative People's Party (Det Konservative Folkeparti) [Lars BARFOED]; Danish People's Party (Dansk Folkeparti) or DF [Kristian THULESEN DAHL]; Liberal Alliance or LA [Anders SAMUELSEN]; Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Lars LOKKE RAMUSSEN]; Red-Green Alliance (Enhedslisten) [collective leadership, spokesperson Johanne SCHMIDT-NIELSEN]; Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokratiet) or SDP [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party (Det Radicale Venstre) or SLP [Margrethe VESTAGER]; Socialist People's Party (Socialistisk Folkeparti) or SF [Annette VILHELMSEN]
Djibouti Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party); Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed YOUSSOUF]; Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP [Mohamed Dileita DILEITA] (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD); Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ
Dominica Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Judith PESTAINA]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]; Dominica United Workers Party or UWP [Hector JOHN]
Dominican Republic Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado]; National Progressive Front [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Carlos MORALES Troncoso]
Ecuador Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]; Breakaway Party [Martha ROLDOS]; Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement - New Country or MUPP-NP [Rafael ANTUNI]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Pulley, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]; Socialist Party; Warrior's Spirit Movement [Jaime NEBOT]
Egypt Al-Wasat Party; Constitution Pary [Mohammed ELBARADEI]; Democratic Peace Party; Egyptian Citizen Party; Freedom Party; Nation Party [Hazem Abu ISMAIL]; National Party of Egypt; New Wafd Party; People's Party; Popular Current Party [Hamdin SABAHI]; Reform and Development Party; Strong Egypt Party [Abdel Aboul FOTOUH]
El Salvador Democratic Change (Cambio Democratico) or CD [Tomas CHEVEZ] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU); Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]; Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Andres ROVIRA]; National Coalition (Concertation Nacional) or CN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA] (formerly the National Conciliation Party or PCN); Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Alfredo CRISTIANI]; Party of Hope or PES [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto] (formerly the Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
Equatorial Guinea Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MICO Abogo]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO] (ruling party); Electoral Coalition or EC; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Avelino MOCACHE]; Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ Ayecaba]
Eritrea People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government); note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties in January 2001, but the full National Assembly has yet to debate or vote on it
Estonia Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]; Estonian Greens (Rohelised) [Aleksander LAANE]; Estonian Conservative People's Party (Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond) or EKRE [Margo MILJAND]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Social Democratic Party or SDE [Sven MIKSER]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) or IRL [Urmas REINSALU]
Ethiopia Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]; All Ethiopian Unity Organization or AEUO [Hailu SHAWEL]; Arena Tigray [GEBRU Asrat]; Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO [Abdulkader MOHAMMED]; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamiso]; Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP [MUSHE Semu]; Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) [Dr. Moga FRISSA]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or AMDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; and Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF); Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM; Gurage Peoples Democratic Front [GIRMA Bogale]; Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein]; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM; Oromo People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF [BUH Hussien]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP [Abdulfetah Sheck ABDULAHI]; South Ethiopian People's Democratic Union or SEPDU [TILAHUN Endeshaw]; United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Dr. NEGASSO Gidada]
European Union Confederal Group of the European United Left-Nordic Green Left or GUE/NGL [Gabriele ZIMMER]; Europe of Freedom and Democracy Group or EFD [Nigel FARAGE and Francesco SPERONI]; European Conservatives and Reformists Group or ECR [Martin CALLANAN]; Group of Greens/European Free Alliance or Greens/EFA [Rebecca HARMS and Daniel COHN-BENDIT]; Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe or ALDE [Guy VERHOFSTADT]; Group of the European People's Party or EPP [Joseph DAUL]; Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats or S&D [Hannes SWOBODA]
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) none; all independents
Faroe Islands Center Party (Midflokkurin) [Jenis av RANA]; Independence Party (Sjalvstyrisflokkurin) [Kari P. HOJGAARD]; People's Party (Folkaflokkurin) [Jorgen NICLASEN];Progressive Party (Framsokn) [Poul MICHELSEN];; Republican Party (Tjodveldi) [Hogni HOYDAL]; Social Democratic Party (Javnadarflokkurin) [Aksel JOHANNESEN]; Union Party (Sambandsflokkurin) [Kaj Leo JOHANNESEN]
Fiji Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fiji Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE], Fijian Association Party or FAP, Fijian Political Party or SVT [Sitiveni RABUKA] (primarily Fijian), and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP [Pramond RAE] (primarily Indian); Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United Peoples Party or UPP [Millis Mick BEDDOES]
Finland Center Party (Suomen Keskusta) or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]; Christian Democrats (Kristillisdemokraatit) or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green League (Vihrea litto) or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]; Left Alliance (Vasemmistolitto) or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI]; National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus) or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen) or SDP [Jutta URPILAINEN]; Swedish People's Party (Svenska Folkpartiet) or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]; The Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset) or TF [Timo SOINI]
France Centrist Union or UDF [Nicolas ABOUT]; Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]; Greens [Dominique VOYNET]; Left Front or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]; Left Party or PG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]; Left Radical Party or PRG [Jean-Michel BAYLET] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG); Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]; New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [Myriam MARTIN and Christine POUPIN]; New Center or NC [Herve MORIN]; Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO]; Rally for France or RPF [Charles PASQUA]; Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]; Socialist Party or PS [Herlem DESIR]; United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN]; Union for a Popular Movement or UMP [Jean-Francois COPE]; Worker's Struggle or LO [Nathalie ARTHAUD]
French Polynesia Alliance for a New Democracy or ADN (includes the parties The New Star and This Country is Yours); New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api); Our Home alliance; People's Servant Party (Tavini Huiraatira); Popular Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira); Union for Democracy alliance or UPD
Gabon Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]; Congress for Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG [Simplice Nguedet MANZELA] (former sole party); Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Benoit Mouity NZAMBA]; Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Zacherie MYBOTO]; National Rally of Woodcutters or RNB; National Rally of Woodcutters-Rally for Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]; Party of Development and Social Solidarity or PDS [Seraphin Ndoat REMBOGO]; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis Gaston MAYILA]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]; Union for Democracy and Social Integration or UDIS; Union of Gabonese Patriots or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]
Gambia, The Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH] (the ruling party); Gambia People's Democratic Party or GPDP [Henry GOMEZ]; National Alliance for Democracy and Development or NADD [Halifa SALLAH]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sheriff DIBBA]; National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat N. K. BAH]; People's Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Halifa SALLAH]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE]
Georgia Christian Democratic Movement [Giorgi TARGAMADZE]; Conservative Party [Kakha KUKAVA]; Democratic Movement United Georgia [Nino BURJANADZE]; For Fair Georgia [Zurab NOGAIDELI]; Georgian Dream (a six-party coalition composed of Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, Republican Party, Our Georgia-Free Democrats, National Forum, Conservative Party, and Industry Will Save Georgia); Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Bidzina IVANISHVILI]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]; National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA]; New Rights [David GAMKRELIDZE]; Our Georgia-Free Democrats (OGFD) [Irakli ALASANIA]; People's Party [Koba DAVITASHVILI; Republican Party [David USUPASHVILI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]; United National Movement or UNM [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]
Germany Alliance '90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Cem OEZDEMIR]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Philipp ROESLER]; Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]
Ghana Convention People's Party or CPP [Samia NKRUMAH]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Obed Yao ASAMOAH]; Democratic People’s Party or DPP [T.N. WARD BREW]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Henry GIDI]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [vacant]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Nii Armah JOSIAH-AYEH]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Jake OBETSEBI-LAMPEY]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; National Reform Party [Peter KPORDUGBE]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Kofi WAYO]
Gibraltar Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Fabian PICARDO]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]; Progressive Democratic Party
Greece Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow or ANTARSYA [Petros KONSTANTINOU]; Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexis TSIPRAS]; Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Aleka PAPARIGA]; Democratic Left [Fotis KOUVELIS]; Democratic Alliance or DISY [Theodora BAKOGIANNI]; Ecologist Greens [Nikos CHRYSOGELOS]; Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS]; Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panos KAMMENOS]; New Democracy or ND [Antonis SAMARAS]; Panhellenic Socialist Movement or PASOK [Evangelos VENIZELOS]; Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Georgios KARATZAFERIS]
Greenland Candidate List (Kattusseqatigiit) [Anthon FREDERIKSEN]; Democratic Party (Demokraatit) [Jens B. FREDERIKSEN]; Forward Party (Siumut) [Aleqa HAMMOND]; Inuit Community (Inuit Ataqatigiit) or IA [Kuupik KLEIST]; Solidarity Party (Atassut) [Gerhardt PETERSEN]
Grenada Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Wilfred HAYES]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]; New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
Guam Democratic Party [Michael PHILLIPS]; Republican Party [Philip J. FLORES] (controls the legislature)
Guatemala Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Rodolfo NEUTZE]; Democratic Union or UD [Edwin Armando MARTINEZ Herrera]; Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Jaime Antonio MARTINEZ Lohayza]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector Alfredo NUILA Ericastilla]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Luis Fernando PEREZ]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ]; National Unity for Hope or UNE; National Welfare or Bien [Fidel REYES Lee]; Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA]; New National Alternative or ANN [Pablo MONSANTO]; Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias]; Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON]; Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen]; Victoria (Victory) [Abraham RIVERA]; Winaq [Rigoberta MENCHU]
Guernsey none; all independents
Guinea National Party for Hope and Development or PEDN [Lansana KOUYATE]; Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union for the Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean Marie DORE]; Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]
note: listed are the five most popular parties as of December 2012; overall, there are more than 130 registered parties
Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Rui Dia de SOUSA]; Democratic Alliance or AD [Victor MANDINGA]; New Democracy Party or PND; Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Sory DJALO]; Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
Guyana Alliance for Change or AFC [Khemraj RAMJATTAN]; Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA]; A Partnership for National Unity or APNU [David GRANGER]; People's Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Donald RAMOTAR]; Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV]; The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR]; The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN]; Vision Guyana [Peter RAMSAROOP]
Haiti Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]; Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]; Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]; December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH); Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]; Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]; Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]; Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]; Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements); Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]; Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]; Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]; Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]; Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]; Union [Chavannes JEUNE]; Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]; Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA); Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]; Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]
Holy See (Vatican City) none
Honduras Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Salvador NASRALLA]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez]; Broad Political Electoral Front in Resistance or FAPER [Andres PAVON]; Democratic Unification Party or PUD [Cesar HAM]; Freedom and Refounding Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]; Liberal Party or PL [Bill SANTOS Brito]; National Party or PN [Ricardo ALVAREZ]; Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes]
Hong Kong parties: Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood or ADPL [LIU Sung Lee]; Civic Party [LEONG Ka-kit]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [TAM Yiu Cheng]; Democratic Party [Albert HO Chun-yan]; Labor Party [LEE Cheuk-yan]; League of Social Democrats or LSD [LEONG Kwok-hung]; Liberal Party [Miriam LAU Kin-yee]; New People's Party [Regina IP Lau Su-yee]; People Power [Raymond WONG Yuk-man]; The Frontier (disbanded)
others: Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU; Neighborhood and Workers Service Center or NWSC
note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Civic Party, Democratic Party, League of Social Democrats, People Power; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party, New People's Party, The Professional Forum (an informal group of three generally pro-government and pro-business LegCo members from functional constituencies and one independent elected from a geographic constituency), and Economic Synergy; there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Hungary Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Democratic Coalition [Ferenc GYURCSANY]; Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Attila MESTERHAZY]; Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA]; Politics Can Be Different or LMP [13-member leadership]
Iceland Independence Party (Sjalfstaedisflokkurinn) or IP [Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON]; Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin-graent frambod) or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party (Frjalslyndi flokkurinn) [Sigurjon THORDARSON]; The Movement (Hreyfingin) [Birgitta JONSDOTTIR]; Progressive Party (Framsoknarflokkurinn) or PP [Sigmundur David GUNNLAUGSSON]; Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) or SDA [Johanna SIGURDARDOTTIR]
India Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]; All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]; All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Nitin GADKARI]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [A.B. BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK [M.KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]; Rashtriya Lok Dal or RLD [Ajit SINGH]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; note - India has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties with four or more seats in the People's Assembly are listed
Indonesia Democrat Party or PD [Anas URBANINGRUM]; Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [SUHARDI]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Luthfi Hasan ISHAQ]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
Iran Note: formal political parties are a relatively new phenomenon in Iran and most conservatives still prefer to work through political pressure groups rather than parties; often political parties or coalitions are formed prior to elections and disbanded soon thereafter; a loose pro-reform coalition called the 2nd Khordad Front, which includes political parties as well as less formal groups and organizations, achieved considerable success in elections for the sixth Majles in early 2000; groups in the coalition included the Islamic Iran Participation Front (IIPF), Executives of Construction Party (Kargozaran), Solidarity Party, Islamic Labor Party, Mardom Salari, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (MIRO), and Militant Clerics Society (MCS; Ruhaniyun); the coalition participated in the seventh Majles elections in early 2004 but boycotted them after 80 incumbent reformists were disqualified; following his defeat in the 2005 presidential elections, former MCS Secretary General and sixth Majles Speaker Mehdi KARUBI formed the National Trust Party; a new conservative group, Islamic Iran Developers Coalition (Abadgaran), took a leading position in the new Majles after winning a majority of the seats in February 2004; ahead of the 2008 Majles elections, traditional and hardline conservatives attempted to close ranks under the United Front of Principlists and the Broad Popular Coalition of Principlists; several reformist groups, such as the MIRO and the IIPF, also came together as a reformist coalition in advance of the 2008 Majles elections; the IIPF has repeatedly complained that the overwhelming majority of its candidates were unfairly disqualified from the 2008 elections
Iraq Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Da'wa Party [Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI]; Da'wa Tanzim [Hashim al-MUSAWI branch]; Da-wa Tanzim [Abd al-Karim al-ANZI branch]; Fadilah Party [Hasan al-SHAMMARI and Ammar TUAMA]; Goran (Change) List [Nushirwan MUSTAFA]; Iraqi Covenant Gathering [Ahmad Abd al-Ghafur al-SAMARRAI]; Iraqi Constitutional Party [Jawad al-BULANI]; Iraqi Front for National Dialogue [Deputy Prime Minister Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraqi Islamic Party or IIP [Usama al-TIKRITI]; Iraqi Justice and Reform Movement [Shaykh Abdallah al-YAWR]; Iraqi National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraqi National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI [Ammar al-HAKIM]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Kurdistan Regional Government President Masud BARZANI]; Future National Gathering [Finance Minister Rafi al-ISSAWI]; National Iraqiyun Gathering [Usama al-NUJAYFI]; National Movement for Reform and Development [Jamal al-KARBULI]; National Reform Trend [former Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [President Jalal TALABANI]; Renewal List [Vice President Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR]; Sahawa al-Iraq [Ahmad al-RISHAWI]
note: numerous smaller local, tribal, and minority parties
Ireland Fianna Fail [Michael MARTIN]; Fine Gael [Enda KENNY]; Green Party [Eamon RYAN]; Labor Party [Eamon GILMORE]; New Vision; Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS]; Socialist Party [Joe HIGGINS]; The Workers' Party [Michael FINNEGAN]; United Left Alliance
Isle of Man Alliance for Progressive Government; Liberal Vannin Party [Peter KARRAN]; Manx Labor Party; Manx Nationalist Party (Mec Vannin) [Bernard MOFFATT]
note: most members sit as independents
Israel Atzmaut (Independence) Party [Ehud BARAK]; Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA]; Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKEH]; Kadima [Shaul MOFAZ]; Labor Party [Shelly YECHIMOVICH]; Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]; National Union Uri ARIEL]; SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI]; The Jewish Home (HaBayit HaYehudi) [Naftali BENNETT]; The Movement (Hatnuah) [Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI]; The New Movement-Meretz [Haim ORON]; United Arab List-Ta'al [Ibrahim SARSUR]; United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN]; Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID]; Yisrael Beiteinu or YB [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
Italy Center-Right: People of Freedom or PdL [Anelino ALFANO]
Center-Left: Democratic Party or PD [Pier Luigi BERSAN]
Centrist Third Pole: Future and Freedom for Italy or FLI [Gianfranco FINI]; Movement for Autonomy or MpA [Raffaele LOMBARDO]; Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]
no affiliation: Italy of Values or IdV [Antonio DI PIETRO]; Lega Nord or LN [Roberto MARONI]; Five Star Movment or M5S [Beppe GRILLO]
Jamaica Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew HOLNESS]; People's National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS]
Japan Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Banri KAIEDA]; Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII]; Japan Restoration Party or JRP [Shintaro ISHIHARA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Shinzo ABE]; New Komeito or NK [Natsuo YAMAGUCHI]; People's New Party or PNP; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Mizuho FUKUSHIMA]; Tomorrow Party Japan of TPJ {Yukiko KADA]; Your Party or YP [Yoshimi WATANABE]
Jersey two declared parties: Centre Party; Jersey Democratic Alliance
note: all senators and deputies elected in 2008 were independents
Jordan Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party [Akram al-HIMSI]; Ba'ath Arab Progressive Party [Fuad DABBOUR]; Call Party [Muhammed ABU BAKR]; Democratic People's Party [Ablah ABU ULBAH]; Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa'id DIAB]; Islamic Action Front or IAF [Hamzah MANSOUR]; Islamic Center Party [Marwan al-FA'URI]; Jordanian Communist Party [Munir HAMARNAH]; Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU BAKR]; Jordanian United Front [Amjad al-MAJALI]; Life Party [Zahier AMR]; Message Party [Hazem QASHOU]; National Constitution Party [Ahmad al-SHUNAQ]; National Current Party [Abd al-Hadi al-MAJALI]; National Movement for Direct Democracy [Muhammad al-QAQ]
Kazakhstan Adilet (Justice) [Maksut NARIKBAYEV, Serik ABDRAHMANOV, Bakhytbek AKHMETZHAN, Yerkin ONGARBAYEV, Tolegan SYDYKOV] (formerly Democratic Party of Kazakhstan); Agrarian and Industrial Union of Workers Block or AIST (Agrarian Party and Civic Party); Ak Zhol Party (Bright Path) [Azat PERUASHEV]; Alga [Vladimir KOZLOV] (unregistered and banned as extremist in November 2012); Auyl (Village) [Gani KALIYEV]; Azat (Freedom) Party [Bolat ABILOV] (formerly True Ak Zhol Party); Azat NSDP [co-chaired by Bolat ABILOV and Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Azat and NSDP united in 2009, but the authorities have refused to register Azat NSDP as a single party; Communist Party of Kazakhstan or KPK [Serikbolsyn ABDILDIN] (unregistered); Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan [Vladislav KOSAREV]; National Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Nur Otan (Fatherland's Ray of Light) [Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, Nurlan NIGMATULIN] (the Agrarian, Asar, and Civic parties merged with Otan); Patriots' Party [Gani KASYMOV]; Rukhaniyat (Spirituality) [Altynshash ZHAGANOVA]
Kenya Kenya African National Union or KANU [Gideon MOI]; The National Party Alliance or TNA [Uhuru KENYATTA]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-Kenya [Martha KARUA]; Orange Democratic Movement or ODM [Raila ODINGA]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-K [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]; Party of National Unity or PNU [Mwai KIBAKI]; United Republican Party or URP [William Ruto]; Wiper Democratic Movement or WDM [Kalonzo MUSYOKA]
Kiribati Boutokaan Te Koaua Party or BTK [Anote TONG]; Kamaeuraoan Te I-Kiribati Party or KTK [Tetaua TAITAI]; Maurin Kiribati Pati or MKP [Rimeta BENIAMINA]
note: there is no tradition of formally organized political parties in Kiribati; they more closely resemble factions or interest groups because they have no party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures
Korea, North major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Un]; minor parties - Chondoist Chongu Party [RYU Mi Yong] (under KWP control), Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong Dae] (under KWP control)
Korea, South Democratic United Party or DUP (formerly the Democratic Party or DP) [MOON Hee-sang]; Liberty Forward Party or LFP (now part of the NFP); New Frontier Party or Saenuri (formerly Grand National Party) or NFP [HWANG Woo-yea]; Progressive Justice Party or PJP [ROH Hoe-chan]; United Progressive Party or UPP [KANG Byeong-gi]
Kosovo Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo or PShDK [Uke BERISHA]; Alliance for a New Kosovo or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kosovo and Metohija or SDSKIM [Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Ashkali Party for Integration or PAI; Bosniak Party of Democratic Action of Kosovo or BSDAK; Bosniak Vakat Coalition or DSV [Sadik IDRIZI]; Citizens' Initiative of Gora or GIG [Murselj HALJILJI]; Coalition for New Kosovo or KKR; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Democratic League of Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Isa MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosovo or PDAK [Berat QERIMI]; Democratic Party of Bosniaks [Dzezair MURATI]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Independent Liberal Party or SLS [Slobadan PETROVIC]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party or KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; Movement for Self-Determination (Vetevendosje) or VV [Albin KURTI]; Movement for Unification or LB; New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Xhevdet NEZIRAJ]; New Democratic Party or NDS [Predrag JOVIC]; Serb National Party or SNS [Mihailo SCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Democratic Party of Kosovo and Metohija or SDS KiM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Serbian Kosovo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; Serbian National Council of Northern Kosovo and Metohija or SNV [Milan IVANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Kosovo or PSDK [Agim CEKU]; Socialist Party of Kosovo or PSK [Ilaz KADOLLI]; United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]; United Serb List or JSL
Kuwait none; formation of political parties is in practice illegal but is not forbidden by law
Kyrgyzstan Ar-Namys (Dignity) Party [Feliks KULOV]; Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV, Akhmat KELDIBEKOV]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]; Butun Kyrgyzstan (All Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]; Respublika [Omurbek BABANOV]; Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (SDPK) [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
Laos Lao People's Revolutionary Party or LPRP [CHOUMMALI Saignason]; other parties proscribed
Latvia Union of Greens and Farmers or ZZS [Raimonds VEJONIS]; Harmony Center or SC [Nils USAKOVS]; National Alliance "All For Latvia!"-"For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK" or NA [Gaidis BERZINS, Raivis DZINTARS]; Unity [Solvita ABOLTINA]; Reform Party or RP [Valdis ZATLERS]
Lebanon 14 March Coalition: Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]; Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]; Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI]; Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL]; Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]; Tripoli Independent Bloc
8 March Coalition: Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement]; Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]; Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc [Mohammad RA'AD] (includes Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH]); Nasserite Popular Movement [Usama SAAD]; Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]; Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]; Tashnaq [Hovig MEKHITIRIAN]
Independent: Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party]; Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]
Lesotho All Basotho Convention or ABC [Thomas THABANE]; Basotho Batho Democratic Party or BBDP; Basotho Congress Party or BCP; Basotho Democratic National Party or BDNP [Thabang NYEOE]; Basotho National Party or BNP [vacant]; Democratic Congress or DC; Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Pakalitha MOSISILI]; Lesotho Peoples Congress or LPC; Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]; Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP; National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI]; Popular Front for Democracy or PFD
Liberia Alliance for Peace and Democracy or APD [Togba-na TIPOTEH]; Congress for Democratic Change or CDC [George WEAH]; Liberty Party or LP [Charles BRUMSKINE]; National Patriotic Party or NPP [Roland MASSAQUOI]; Unity Party or UP [Varney SHERMAN]
Libya note: includes some of the larger political parties and leaders
Al-Watan (Homeland) Party; Justice and Construction Party or JCP [Muhammad SAWAN]; National Front (initially the National Front for the Salvation of Libya, formed in 1981 as a diaspora opposition group); National Forces Alliance [Mahmoud JIBRIL] (includes many political organizations, NGOs, and independents); Union for the Homeland [Abd al-Rahman al-SUWAYHILI]
Liechtenstein Die Freie Liste (The Free List) or FL [Wolfgang MARXER]; Fortschrittliche Buergerpartei (Progressive Citizens' Party) or FBP [Alexander BATLINER]; Vaterlaendische Union (Fatherland Union) or VU [Jakob BUECHEL]
Lithuania Christian Party or KP [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Algimantas MATULEVICIUS]; Democratic Labor and Unity Party or DDVP [Kristina BRAZAUSKIENE]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]; Emigrants Party or EP [Juozas MURAUSKAS]; Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party or DP [Viktor USPASKICH]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Algis CAPLIKAS]; Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]; Lithuanian People's Party or LLP [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Lithuanian People's Party or LZP [Joana SIMANAUSKIENE]; Lithuanian Russian Union or LRS [Sergejus DMITRIJEVAS]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS]; Nationalist Union or TS [Gintaras SONGAILA]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Peasant and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]; Republican Party or RP [Valdemaras VALKIUNAS]; Russian Alliance or RA [Tamara LOCHANKINA]; Socialist People's Front or SLF [Algirdas PALECKIS]; Way of Courage or DK [Jonas VARKALA]; YES-Homeland Revival and Perspective or YES Union or TAIP Union or TAIP [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Young Lithuania Party or PJL [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]
Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Fernand KARTHEISER]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Lucien LUX]; other minor parties
Macau Alliance for Change or MUDAR; Macau Development Alliance or NUDM [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Macau-Guangdong Union or UNG; Macau United Citizens' Association or ACUM [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Macau Association or NMA [Jason CHAO]; New Hope or NE [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Union for Promoting Progress or UPP [LEONG Heng-teng]
note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Macedonia Albanian Democratic Union or BDSh [Bardhyl MAHMUTI]; Democratic League of Bosniaks in Macedonia [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia or DPSM [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of the Albanians or PDSh [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Turks of Macedonia or DPTM [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia or DOM [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union or DS [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI [Ali AHMETI]; Dosoinstvo (Diginity) [Stojance ANGELOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - People's Party or VMRO-NP [Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Andrej ZENOVSKI]; Liberal Party of Macedonia or LP [Ivon VELICKOVSKI]; Movement for Turkish National Union [Erdogan SARAC]; National Democratic Revival or RDK [Rufi OSMANI]; New Democracy or ND [Imer SELMANI]; New Social-Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Action of Macedonia or SDA [Avdija PEPIC]; Party for the Total Emancipation of Roma or PCER [Samka IBRAIMOVSKI]; Party of United Democrats of Macedonia or PODEM [Zivko JANKULOVSKI]; Party on European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Serbian Progressive Party in Macedonia or SPSM [Dragisha MILETIC]; Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Branko CRVENKOVSKI]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVNAOV DZINGO]; Union of Roma of Macedonia or SR [Amdi BAJRAM]; United for Macedonia or OM [Ljube BOSKOSKI]
Madagascar Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Democratic Party for Union in Madagascar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Malawi Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Dindi NYASULU]; Congress of Democrats or CODE [Ralph KASAMBARA]; Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum for Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Maravi People's Party [Uladi MUSSA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; New Rainbow Coalition Party [Beatrice MWALE]; New Republican Party [Gwanda CHAKUWAMBA]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Stanley MASAULI]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI]; United Democratic Party [Kenedy KALAMBO]
Malaysia National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [KOH Tsu Koon]; Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [LIEW Vui Keong]; Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [CHUA Soi Lek]; Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [Govindasamy PALANIVEL]; Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP]; Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan]; Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Abdul TAIB Mahmud]; Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING]; Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Peter CHIN Fah Kui]; United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak]; United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Bernard DOMPOK]; People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M.Kayveas]; Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [William MAWAN])
People's Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat) or PR (opposition coalition) consists of the following parties: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [KARPAL Singh]; Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang]; People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail]; Sarawak National Party or SNAP [Edwin DUNDANG]
independent party: Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP [YONG Teck Lee]
Maldives Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Shaykh Hussein RASHEED Ahmed]; Dhivehi Qaumee Party or DQP [Hassan SAEED]; Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (Maldivian People's Party) or DRP [Ahmed THASMEEN Ali]; Gaumee Itthihaad Party (National Unity Party) or GIP [Mohamed WAHEED]; Islamic Democratic Party or IDP; Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Ibrahim DIDI]; Maldives National Congress or MNC; Maldives Social Democratic Party or MSDP; Meedhu Dhaaira; People's Alliance or PA [Abdullah YAMEEN]; People's Party or PP; Poverty Alleviation Party or PAP; Progressive Party of Maldives or PPM [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]; Republican (Jumhooree) Party or JP [Gasim IBRAHIM]; Social Liberal Party or SLP [Mazian RASHEED]
Mali African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Convergence for the development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni GUINDO]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Malta Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD [Michael BRIGUGLIO]; Labor Party or PL [Joseph MUSCAT]; Nationalist Party or PN [Lawrence GONZI]; The Malta Communist Party [Victor DEGIOVANNI]
Marshall Islands traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Aelon Kein Ad Party [Michael KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
Mauritania Alternative or El-Badil [Mohamed Yahdhi Ould MOCTAR HACEN]; Coalition of Majority Parties or CPM (parties supporting the regime including PRDR, UPR, RD, HATEM-PMUC, UCD); Coordination of Democratic Opposition or COD (coalition of opposition political parties opposed to the government including APP, RFD, UFP, PNDD-ADIL, Alternative or El-Badil); Democratic Renewal or RD [Moustapha Ould ABDEIDARRAHMANE]; Mauritanian Party for Unity and Change or HATEM-PMUC [Saleh Ould HANENA]; National Pact for Democracy and Development or PNDD-ADIL [Yahya Ould Ahmed El WAGHEF] (independents formerly supporting President Abdellahi); National Rally for Freedom, Democracy and Equality or RNDLE; National Rally for Reform and Development or RNRD-TAWASSOUL [Mohamed Jamil MANSOUR] (moderate Islamists); Popular Front or FP [Ch'bih Ould CHEIKH MALAININE]; Popular Progressive Alliance or APP [Messoud Ould BOULKHEIR]; Rally of Democratic Forces or RFD [Ahmed Ould DADDAH]; Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal or PRDR [Mintata Mint HDEID]; Socialist and Democratic Unity Party or PUDS; Union for Democracy and Progress or UDP [Naha Mint MOUKNASS]; Union for the Republic or UPR; Union of Democratic Center or UCD [Cheikh Sid'Ahmed Ould BABA]; Union of the Forces for Progress or UFP [Mohamed Ould MAOULOUD];
Mauritius Alliance of the Future or AF [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM] (governing coalition - includes MLP, MMSM, MR, MSD, PMSD); Mauritian Labor Party or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM]; Mauritian Militant Movement or MMM [Paul BERENGER]; Mauritian Militant Socialist Movement or MMSM [Pravind JUGNAUTH]; Mauritian Socialist Militant Movement or MSMM [Madan DULLOO]; Mauritian Solidarity Front of FSM [Cehl FAKEERMEEAH]; Mouvement Republicain or MR [Jayarama VALAYDEN]; Maurition Social Democratic Party or PMSD [Xavier Luc DUVAL]; Rodrigues Movement or MR [Joseph (Nicholas) Von MALLY]; Rodrigues Peoples Organization or OPR [Serge CLAIR]
Mexico Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) [Luis WALTON Aburto]; Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]; Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]; Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [vacant]; National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]; New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]; Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]
Micronesia, Federated States of no formal parties
Moldova represented in Parliament: Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Marian LUPU]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladimir FILAT]; Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]; Alliance for European Integration or AEI (coalition of the PD, PLDM, and PL)
not represented in Parliament: Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]; Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA]; European Action Movement or MAE [Veaceslav UNTILA]; For Nation and Country Party or PpNT [Sergiu MOCANU]; Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]; Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Party of Socialists or PSRM [Igor DODON]; Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ]; Popular Republican Party or PPR [Nicolae ANDRONIC]; Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]; Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]; Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]; United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]
Monaco Monaco Together; Rally and Issues for Monaco or REM; Union for Monaco or UPM (including National Union for the Future of Monaco or UNAM)
Mongolia Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Dangaasuren EHKHBAT]; Democratic Party or DP [Norov ALTANHUYAG]; Mongolian People's Party or MPP [O. ENKHTUVSHIN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
Montenegro Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]; Coalition for European Montenegro (bloc) [Milo DJUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC], Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC], and the Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Andrija POPOVIC]); Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]; Democratic Center or DC [Goran BATRICEVIC]; Democratic Front (bloc) [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija POPOVIC], Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC], a dissident faction of the Socialist People's Party, and the Democratic Party of Unity [Zoran ZIZIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity [Mehmet BARDHIJ]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]; FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; Positive Montenegro [Darko PAJOVIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
Montserrat Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS]; Movement for Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY]; New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE]
Morocco Action Party or PA [Mohammed EL IDRISSI]; Al Ahd (The Covenant) Party [Najib EL OUAZZANI]; Alliance des Libert'es (Alliance of Liberty) or ADL [Ali BELHAJ]; An-Nahj Ad-Dimocrati or An-Nahj [Abdellah EL HARIF]; Authenticity and Modernity Party or PAM [Mohamed Cheikh BIADILLAH, secretary general]; Choura et Istiqlal (Consultation and Independence) Party or PCI [Abdelwahed MAACH]; Citizens' Forces or FC [Abderrahman LAHJOUJI]; Citizenship and Development Initiative or ICD [Mohamed BENHAMOU]; Constitutional Union Party or UC [Mohammed ABIED]; Democratic and Social Movement or MDS [Mahmoud ARCHANE]; Democratic Forces Front or FFD [Touhami EL KHIARI]; Democratic Socialist Vanguard Party or PADS [Ahmed BENJELLOUN]; Democratic Society Party or PSD [Zhor CHEKKAFI]; Democratic Union or UD [Bouazza IKKEN]; Environment and Development Party or PED [Ahmed EL ALAMI]; Istiqlal (Independence) Party or PI [Abbas EL FASSI]; Justice and Development Party or PJD [Abdelillah BENKIRANE]; Labor Party or PT [Abdelkrim BENATIK]; Moroccan Liberal Party or PML [Mohamed ZIANE]; National Democratic Party or PND [Abdallah KADIRI]; National Ittihadi Congress Party or CNI [Abdelmajid BOUZOUBAA]; National Popular Movement or MNP [Mahjoubi AHERDANE]; National Rally of Independents or RNI [Mustapha EL MANSOURI]; National Union of Popular Forces or UNFP [Abdellah IBRAHIM]; Popular Movement or MP [Mohamed LAENSER]; Progress and Socialism Party or PPS [Ismail ALAOUI]; Reform and Development Party or PRD [Abderrahmane EL KOUHEN]; Renaissance and Virtue Party or PRV [Mohamed KHALIDI]; Renewal and Equity Party or PRE [Chakir ACHABAR]; Social Center Party or PSC [Lahcen MADIH]; Socialist Democratic Party or PSD [Aissa OUARDIGHI]; Socialist Union of Popular Forces or USFP [Driss LACHGAR]; Unified Socialist Left Party or PGSU [Mohamed Ben Said AIT IDDER]
Mozambique Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]; Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Namibia All People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI]; Congress of Democrats or COD [Benjamin ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Jurie VILJOEN]; National Democratic Movement for Change or NamDMC; National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Hidipo HAMUTENYA]; Republican Party or RP [Hendrick MUDGE]; South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hifikepunye POHAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]
Nauru Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]; Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party; Nauru Party (informal); note - loose multiparty system
Nepal Chure Bhawar Rastriya Ekata Party [Badri Prasad NEUPANE]; Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist or CPN-ML [C.P. MAINALI]; Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist Samaibadi [Jaqat Bahadur BOGATI]; Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist [Mohan BAIDYA, also known as KIRAN]; Communist Party of Nepal-Unified [Raj Singh SHRIS]; Communist Party of Nepal-United [Chandra Dev JOSHI]; Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or CPN-UML [Jhalanath KHANAL]; Dalit Janajati Party [Vishwendraman PASHWAN]; Federal Democratic National Forum; Federal Democratic National Party [Yogendra CHAUDBARI]; Federal Sadbhayana Party [Anil JHAL]; Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHHADAR]; Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]; Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republic [Jaya Prakash GUPTA]; Nepal Loktantrik Samajbadi Dal [Laxmi Lal CHAUDBARY]; Nepal Pariwar Dal [Eknath DHAKAL]; Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]; Nepali Congress or NC [Sushil KOIRALA]; Nepali Janata Dal [Harish Chandra SHA]; Newa Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA]; Rastriya Janamorcha [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]; Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]; Rastriya Janashakti Party or RJP [Surya Bahadur THAPA]; Rastriya Prajantantra Party [Pashupati Shumsher RANA]; Rastriya Prajantantra Party Nepal [Kamal THAPA]; Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]; Sadbhavana Party-Anandi Devi [Sarita GIRI]; Samajbadi Prajatantrik Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH]; Terai Madhes Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]; Terai Madhes Democratic Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAVI]; Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]
Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]; Christian Union or CU [Arie SLOB]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]; Green Left or GL [Bram VAN OJIK]; Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM]; Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]; Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Halbe ZIJLSTRA]; Reformed Political Party of SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]; Socialist Party of SP [Emile ROEMER]; plus a few minor parties
New Caledonia Caledonia My Country; Caledonia Together [Philippe GOMES]; Caledonian Union or UC [Nicholas ABOUT]; Communist Republican and Left Party or CRC-SPG [Nichole BORVO COHEN-SEAT]; Democratic and European Social Rally or R.D.S.E. [Yvon COLLIN]; Front National or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; Kanak Socialist Front for National Liberation or FLNKS (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM); Labor Party [Louis Kotra UREGEI]; National Union for Independence (Union Nationale pour l'Independance) or UNI; Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; Renewed Caledonian Union; Socialist Group [Jean Pierre BEL]; Socialist Kanak Liberation or LKS [Nidoish NAISSELINE]; The Future Together or AE [Didier LEROUX]; The Rally or UMP [Gerard LONGUET]; Union of Pro-Independence Co-operation Committees [Francois BURCK]
New Zealand ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Russel NORMAN and Metiria TUREI]; Mana Party [Hone HARAWIRA]; Maori Party [Tariana TURIA and Dr. Pita SHARPLES]; New Zealand National Party [John KEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party [Phil GOFF]; Jim Anderton's Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future New Zealand [Peter DUNNE]
Nicaragua Alliance for the Republic or APRE; Conservative Party or PC [Alejandro BOLANOS Davis]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Eduardo MONTEALEGRE]; Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC [Maria Haydee OSUNA]; Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Alejandro MEJIA Ferreti]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Enrique SAENZ-NAVARRETE]
Niger Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE]; National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara; Niger Social Democratic Party or PSDN; Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]; Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana; Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]; Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]; Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU]; Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat; Union of Independent Nigeriens or UNI; note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
Nigeria Accord Party [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]; Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE]; All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya C. ONU]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Congress for Progressive Change or CPC [Tony MOMOH]; Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Labor Party [Umar MUSTAPHA]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Bamanga TUKUR]
Niue Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]
Norfolk Island none
Northern Mariana Islands Covenant Party [Benigno R. FITIAL]; Democratic Party [Dr. Carlos S. CAMACHO]; Republican Party [Juan S. REYES]
Norway Center Party (Senterpartiet) or SP [Liv Signe NAVARSETE]; Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti) or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE]; Conservative Party (Hoyre) or H [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party (Arbeiderpartiet) or Ap [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party (Venstre) or V [Trine SKEI-GRANDE]; Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet) or FrP [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Oman political parties are illegal
Pakistan Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Syed Munawar HASAN]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN]; Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat-i Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Abul Khair ZUBAIR]; Millat-e-Jafferia [Allama Sajid NAQVI]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Palau none
Panama Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Francisco SANCHEZ Cardenas]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Sergio GONZALEZ-Ruiz]; Panamenista Party [Juan Carlos VARELA Rodriguez] (formerly the Arnulfista Party); Patriotic Union Party or UP (combination of the Liberal National Party or PLN and the Solidarity Party or PS)[Anibal GALINDO]; Popular Party or PP [Milton HENRIQUEZ] (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC)
note: The Patriotic Union Party (UP) has now merged with Democratic Change (CD)
Papua New Guinea National Alliance Party or NA [Patrick PRUAITCHI]; Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Beldan NEMAH]; People's National Congress Party or PNC [Peter O'NEILL]; People's Party or PP; People's Progress Party or PPP; Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE [Don Poyle]; United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA]
note: as of 13 March 2012, 41 political parties were registered
Paraguay Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Lilian SAMANIEGO]; Avanza Pais coalition [Mario Ferreiro]; Broad Front coalition (Frente Guazu) or FG [Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez]; Movimiento Popolar Tekojoja or Tekojoja [Sixto PEREIRA]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Lino Cesar OVIEDO Silva]; Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Sebastian ACHA]; Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]; Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Rafael Augusto FILIZZOLA Serra]; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO Paredes]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Blas Antonio Llano Ramos]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Peru Alliance for Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio) (a coalition of the Alliance for Progress, Humanist Party, National Restoration Party, and Popular Christian Party) [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI]; Fuerza 2011 [Keiko FUJIMORI]; Gana Peru (a coalition of Lima Para Todos, Peruvian Communist Party, Peruvian Nationalist Party, and Peruvian Socialist Party) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN (a coalition of Cambio 90, Siempre Unidos, Todos por el Peru, and Union for Peru or UPP) [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Philippines Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel VILLAR]; Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]
Pitcairn Islands none
Poland Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK, chairman; Rafal GRUPINSKI, parliamentary caucus leader]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Leszek MILLER, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader]; Democratic Party or PD [Brygida KUZNIAK, chairwoman]; Democratic Party or SD [Pawel PISKORSKI, chairman]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative]; Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Mariusz BLASZCZAK, parliamentary caucus leader]; League of Polish Families or LPR [Witold BALAZAK, chairman]; Palikot's Movement or RP [Janusz PALIKOT, chairman]; Poland Comes First or PJN [Pawel KOWAL, chairperson]; Polish People's Party or PSL [Janusz PIECHOCINSKI, chairman; Jan BURY, parliamentary caucus leader]; Social Democratic Party of Poland or SDPL [Wojciech FILEMONOWICZ, chairman]; Union of Labor or UP [Waldemar WITKOWSKI, chairman]; United Poland or SP (political grouping of former PiS members, not officially registered) [Arkadiusz MULARCZYK, chairperson; Patrick HOW, parliamentary caucus leader]
Portugal Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO]; Socialist Party or PS [Jose SEGURO]; The Left Bloc or BE [Pedro Filipe SOARES]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)
Puerto Rico National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Dr. Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro ROSSELLO] (pro-US statehood); Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA] (pro-commonwealth); Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] (pro-independence)
Qatar none
Romania Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Victor CIORBEA]; Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]; Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]; National Peasant Christian Democratic Party or PNTCD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]; National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]; People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]; Right Romania Alliance or ARD [Vasile BLAGA, Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU, and Aurelian PAVELESCU] (a center-right electoral alliance that includes PDL, FC, PNT-CD); Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR); Social Liberal Union or USL [Victor PONTA and Crin ANTONESCU] (an alliance of the PSD, PNL, UNPR, and PC)
Russia A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV]; Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY]; Right Cause [Andrey DUNAYEV]; Rodina [Aleksey ZHURAVLEV]; United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV]; Yabloko Party [Sergey MITROKHIN]
Rwanda Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Agnes MUKABARANGA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Gonzague RWIGEMA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Musa Fazil HARERIMANA]; Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Alvera MUKABARAMBA]; Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [Jean Baptist RUCIBIGANGO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]; Socialist Party-Imberakuri or PS-Imberakuri [Christine MUKABUNANI]; Solidarity and Prosperity Party or PSP [Pheobe KANYANGE]
Saint Barthelemy Action-Equilibre-Transparence [Maxime DESOUCHES]; Ensemble pour Saint-Barthelemy [Benoit CHAUVIN]; Saint-Barth d'Abord! or SBA [Bruno MAGRAS]; Tous Unis pour Saint-Barthelemy [Karine MIOT-RICHARD]
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha none
Saint Kitts and Nevis Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY]; Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY]; People's Action Movement or PAM [Shawn RICHARDS]; Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS]
Saint Lucia Lucian People's Movement or LPM [Therold PRUDENT]; Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenny ANTHONY]; United Workers Party or UWP [Stephenson KING]
Saint Martin Union Pour le Progres or UPP [Louis-Constant FLEMING]; Rassemblement Responsabilite Reussite or RRR [Alain RICHARDSON]; Reussir Saint-Martin [Jean-Luc HAMLET]; Saint-Martin pour tous; Team Daniel Gibbs
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UDF/RPR list); Cap sur l'Avenir (affiliated with PRG); Left Radical Party or PRG; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP); Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2000/Avenir Miquelon or SPM 2000/AM; Socialist Party or PS; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE]; Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES] (formed by the coalition of Saint Vincent Labor Party or SVLP and the Movement for National Unity or MNU)
Samoa Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA]; Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA]; Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [NA]; Tautua Samoa [Palusalue FA'APO II]
San Marino San Marino Common Good Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Gerardo GIOVAGNOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Mario VETURINI]; Entente for the Country Socialist Party or PS [Augusto CASALI]; Union for the Republic or UPR [Giovanni LONFERNINI]; Union of Moderates; note - believed to have been dismantled; Active Citizenship United Left or SU; Civic 10; Civic Movement R.E.T.E. (Network); For San Marino [Emilio DELLA BALDA]; San Marino 3.0 [Simone DELLA VALLE]
Sao Tome and Principe Force for Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Tome Soares da VERA CRUZ]; Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Patrice TROVOADA]; Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Rafael BRANCO]; New Way Movement or NR; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Delfim NEVES]; Ue-Kedadji coalition; other small parties
Saudi Arabia none
Senegal African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]; Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion [Macky SALL]; Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties); Bokk Giss Giss coalition [Pape DIOP]; Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Ahmadou Kara MBACKE]; People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRDS; Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Synergy for Ethics and Transparency [Aminata TALL]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Serbia Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]; Bosniak Democratic Union or BDU [Elmir ELFIC]; Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina or DSHV [Petar KUNTIC]; Democratic Party or DS [Dragan DJILAS]; The Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]; Christian Democratic Party of Serbia or DHSS [Olgica BATIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Serbian Progressive Party [Aleksandar VUCIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Albanian Coalition of Presevo Valley [Riza HALIMI]; Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Jovan KRKOBABIC]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; United Regions of Serbia [Mladan DINKIC]; United Serbia or JS [Dragan "Palma" MARKOVIC]; None of the Offered Options or NOPO [Nikola TULIMIROVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]; Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Rich Serbia [Zaharije TRNAVCEVIC]; People's Party [Maja GOJKOVIC]
Seychelles Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW]; New Democratic Party or NDP; People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [France Albert RENE]; Popular Democratic Movement or PDM; Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO)
Sierra Leone All People's Congress or APC [Ernest Bai KOROMA]; Peace and Liberation Party or PLP [Darlington MORRISON]; People's Movement for Democratic Change or PMDC [Charles MARGAI]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Julius Maada BIO]; numerous others
Singapore National Solidarity Party or NSP [Hazel POA]; People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Reform Party [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Desmond LIM]; Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong]; Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang]
note: SDA includes Singapore Justice Party or SJP and Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS
Sint Maarten Democratic Party or DP [Sarah WESCOTT-WILLIAMS]; National Alliance or NA [William MARLIN]; United People's Party or UPP [Theodore HEYLIGER]; Concordia Political Alliance or CPA [Jeffery RICHARDSON]
Slovakia parties in the Parliament: Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR]; Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan FIGEL]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK]; Ordinary People and Independent Personalities or OLaNO [Igor MATOVIC]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Pavol FRESO]
selected parties outside the Parliament: Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Ondrej DOSTAL]; Nation and Justice - Our Party or NAS [Anna BELOUSOVOVA]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Jozef DURICA]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef BERENYI]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; People's Party - Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Slovenia Civic List Party or LGV [Gregor VIRANT]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS [Iztok PODBREGAR]; New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK]; Positive Slovenia or PS [Zoran JANKOVIC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Radovan ZERJAV]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Social Democrats or SD [Igor LUKSIC] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor GOLOBIC]
Solomon Islands Direct Development Party or DDP [Dick HA'AMORI]; People's Alliance Party or PAP [James MEKAB]; People's Congress Party or PCP [Fred FONO]; People's Federation Party or PFP [Rudolf DORA]; Ownership, Unity, and Responsibility Party or OUR [Manasseh SOGAVARE]; Reform Democratic Party or RDP [Danny PHILIP]; Rural and Urban Political Party or RUPP [Samuel MANETOALI]; Solomon Islands Democratic Party or SIDP [Steve ABANA]; Solomon Islands Liberal Party or SILP [Derek SIKUA]; Solomon Islands National Party or SINP [Francis HILLY]; Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Job D. TAUSINGA]; United Party [Sir Peter KENILOREA]
note: in general, Solomon Islands politics is characterized by fluid coalitions
Somalia none
South Africa African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]; African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA]; Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]; Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Motsoko PHEKO]; United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Lucas MANGOPE]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
South Sudan Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit]; National Congress Party or NCP; Sudan People's Liberation Movement for Democratic Change or SPLM-DC [Sisto OLUR Erista]
Spain Amaiur [collective leadership] (a coalition of parties advocating the peaceful Basque independence from Spain); Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU Renteria]; Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Guillerme VAZQUEZ Vazquez]; Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRA i Torres]; Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [collective leadership] (a coalition of four Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]; Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE; Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo]; Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez]; United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)
Sri Lanka Coalitions and leaders: Democratic National Alliance, led by General (Retired) Sarath FONSEKA; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Somawansa AMARASINGHE]; Tamil National Alliance led by Illandai Tamil Arasu Kachchi [R. SAMPANTHAN]; United National Front led by United National Party [Ranil WICKREMESINGHE]; United People's Freedom Alliance led by Sri Lanka Freedom Party [Mahinda RAJAPAKSA]
Sudan Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Hatim al-SIR]; Democratic Unionist Party-Original or DUPO; National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]; Umma Federal Party or UFP; Umma Renewal and Reform Party or URRP
Suriname A-Combination (a coalition that includes the General Liberation and Development Party ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK], and SEEKA [Paul ABENA]); Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy or BVD [Dilip SARDJOE]; Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy or PVF [Soedeschand JAIRAM]; Democratic Union Suriname or DUS [Japhet DIEKO]; Mega Combination Coalition (a coalition that joined with A-Combination and the PL to form a majority in Parliament in 2010 - includes the National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire BOUTERSE] (largest party in the coalition), Progressive Worker and Farmer's Union or PALU [Jim HOK], Party for National Unity and Solidarity of the Highest Order or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA], DNP-2000 [Jules WIJDENBOSCH], Union of Brotherhood and Unity in Politics BEP [Caprino ALENDY], and New Suriname or NS [Nanan PANDAY]); National Union or NU [P. VAN LEEUWAARDE]; New Front for Democracy and Development or NF (a coalition made up of the National Party of Suriname or NPS [Runaldo VENETIAAN], United Reform Party or VHP [Ramdien SARDJOE], Democratic Alternative 1991 or DA-91 - an independent, business-oriented party [Winston JESSURUN], Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Siegfried GILDS]); Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]; Party for the Permanent Prosperity Republic Suriname or PVRS [NA]; People's Alliance, Pertjaja Luhur's or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO](includes D-21 [Soewarta MOESTADJA] and Pendawa Lima [Raymond SAPEON], which merged with PL in 2010)
note: BVD and PVF participated in the elections as a coalition (BVD/PVF) in the most recent elections, but separated after the election
Swaziland the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution and currently being debated; the following are considered political associations; African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA, president]; Imbokodvo National Movement or INM; Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Obed DLAMINI, president]; People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU, president]
Sweden Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]; Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Goran HAGGLUND]; Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona); [spokespersons Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN]; Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]; Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) or FP [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party (Moderaterna) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]; Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Switzerland Christian Democratic People's Party (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Popolare Democratico Svizzero or PPD, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Christophe DARBELLAY]; Conservative Democratic Party (Buergerlich-Demokratische Partei Schweiz or BDP, Parti Bourgeois Democratique Suisse or PBD, Partito Borghese Democratico Svizzero or PBD, Partido burgais democratica Svizera or (PBD)) [Martin LANDOLT]; Free Democratic Party or FDP.The Liberals (FDP.Die Liberalen, PLR.Les Liberaux-Radicaux, PLR.I Liberali, Ils Liberals) [Philipp MUELLER]; Green Liberal Party (Grunliberale or GLP, Parti vert liberale or PVL, Partito Verde-Liberale or PVL, Partida Verde Liberale or PVL) [Martin BAEUMLE]; Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Adele THORENS]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialiste Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Christian LEVRAT]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica di Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Toni BRUNNER]; and other minor parties
Syria legal parties: National Progressive Front or NPF [President Bashar al-ASAD, Dr. Suleiman QADDAH] (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr Al-DIN]; Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU [Safwan al-QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [As'ad HARDAN]; Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL])
Kurdish parties (considered illegal): Kurdish Azadi Party; Kurdish Democratic Accord Party (al Wifaq); Kurdish Democratic Party (al Parti-Ibrahim wing); Kurdish Democratic Party (al Parti-Mustafa wing); Kurdish Democratic Party in Syria or KDP-S; Kurdish Democratic Patriotic/National Party; Kurdish Democratic Progressive Party or KDPP-Darwish; Kurdish Democratic Progressive Party or KDPP-Muhammad; Kurdish Democratic Union Party or PYD [Salih Muslim MOHAMMAD]; Kurdish Democratic Unity Party; Kurdish Democratic Yekiti Party; Kurdish Future Party or KFP; Kurdish Future Party [Rezan HASSAN]; Kurdish Left Party; Kurdish Yekiti (Union) Party; Syrian Kurdish Democratic Party
other parties: Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]
Taiwan Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [SU Tseng-chang]; Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [MA Ying-jeou]; Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [LIN Pin-kuan]; People First Party or PFP [James SOONG]
Tajikistan Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Tanzania Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Willibrod SLAA]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi [Hashim RUNGWE]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Mutamwega MUGAHWYA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Fahma DOVUTWA]
Thailand Chat Pattana Party or CPN (Nation Development Party [WANNARAT Channukun]; Chat Thai Phattana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [CHUMPON Silpa-archa]; Phalang Chon Party (People [Chonburi] Power Party) [CHAO Manivong]; Phumjai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [Boonjong WONGTRAIRAT (acting)]; Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]; Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [CHARUPHONG Rueangsusan also spelled JARUPONG Ruangsuwan]; Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [CHUWIT Kamonwisit]
Timor-Leste Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Xanana GUSMAO]; National Democratic Union of Timorese Resistance or UNDERTIM [Cornelio DA Conceicao GAMA]; National Unity Party or PUN [Fernanda BORGES]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor-Leste or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]; Social Democratic Association of Timor or ASDT; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Zacarias Albano da COSTA]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors or KOTA [Manuel TILMAN] (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes); (only parties in Parliament are listed)
Togo Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Tokelau none
Tonga Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands [Samuela 'Akilisi POHIVA]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO]; Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA]; Tonga Democratic Labor Party [NA]; Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM [NA]
Trinidad and Tobago Congress of the People or COP [Prakash RAMADHAR]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Charles CARSON] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH]; People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY]; Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK]; United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]
Tunisia Afek Tounes [Emna MINF]; al-Nahda (The Renaissance) [Rachid GHANNOUCHI]; Congress Party for the Republic or CPR [Moncef MARZOUKI]; Democratic Forum for Labor and Liberties or FDTL (Ettakatol) [Mustapha Ben JAAFAR]; Democratic Modernist Pole or PDM (a coalition); Democratic Socialist Movement or MDS; Et-Tajdid Movement [Ahmed IBRAHIM]; Green Party for Progress or PVP [Mongi KHAMASSI]; Liberal Social Party or PSL [Mondher THABET]; Movement of Socialist Democrats or MDS [Ismail BOULAHYA]; Popular Petition (Aridha Chaabia) [Hachemi HAMDI]; Popular Unity Party or PUP [Mohamed BOUCHIHA]; Progressive Democratic Party or PDP [Maya JERIBI]; The Initiative [Kamel MORJANE] (formerly the Constitutional Democratic Rally or RCD); Tunisian Workers' Communist Party or PCOT [Hamma HAMMAMI]; Unionist Democratic Union or UDU [Ahmed INOUBLI]
Turkey Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER]; Democratic Party or DP [Namik Kemal ZEYBEK]; Equality and Democracy Party or EDP [Ziva HALIS]; Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS]; Grand Unity Party or BBP [Yalcin TOPCU]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Peace and Democracy Party or BDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU]; Turkey Party or TP [Abdullatif SENER]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 61 parties that Turkey had according to the Ministry of Interior statistics current as of May 2009
Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, Chairman; Kasymguly BABAYEW, DPT Political Council First Secretary]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs or PIE [Orazmammet MAMMEDOW] (party registered 21 August 2012)
note: a law authorizing the registration of political parties went into effect in January 2012; unofficial, small opposition movements exist abroad; the three most prominent opposition groups-in-exile are the National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT), the Republican Party of Turkmenistan, and the Watan (Fatherland) Party; the NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment in the wake of the 25 November 2002 attack on President NYYAZOW's motorcade
Turks and Caicos Islands People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Oswald SKIPPINGS]; People's Progressive Party [NA]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Rufus EWING]
Tuvalu there are no political parties but members of parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings
Uganda Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Muntu MUGISHA]; Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups); Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Olara OTUNNU]
note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
Ukraine Batkivshchyna [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]; Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; European Party of Ukraine [Mykola KATERYNCHUK]; Front of Change [Arseniy YATSENYUK]; Our Ukraine [Valentyn NALYVAICHENKO]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; Party of Regions [Mykola AZAROV, chairman]; Party of the Defenders of the Fatherland [Yuriy KARMAZIN]; People's Movement of Ukraine (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]; People's Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]; Peoples' Self-Defense Party [Oleh NOVIKOV]; Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Republican Party Sobor [Anatoliy MATVIYENKO]; Social Democratic Party [Yevhen KORNICHUK]; Social Democratic Party (United) or SDPU(o) [Yuriy ZAHORODNIY]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ]; Svoboda [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]; Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reforms or UDAR [Vitaliy KLYCHKO]; Ukrainian People's Party [Yuriy KOSTENKO]; Union [Lev MIRIMSKY]; United Center [Viktor BALOHA]; Viche [Inna BOHOSLOVSKA]
United Arab Emirates none; political parties are not allowed
United Kingdom Conservative [David CAMERON]; Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Peter ROBINSON]; Labor Party [Ed MILIBAND]; Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Nick CLEGG]; Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Leanne WOOD]; Scottish National Party or SNP [Alex SALMOND]; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS]; Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Alasdair MCDONNELL]; Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Mike NESBITT]; United Kingdom Independent Party or UKIP [Nigel FARAGE]
United States Democratic Party [Debbie Wasserman SCHULTZ]; Green Party; Libertarian Party [Mark HINKLE]; Republican Party [Reince PRIEBUS]
Uruguay Broad Front (Frente Amplio) - formerly known as the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or EP-FA [Jorge BROVETTO] (a broad governing coalition that includes Movement for Popular Participation or MPP, New Space Party (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI], Progressive Alliance (Alianza Progresista) [Rodolfo NIN NOVOA], Socialist Party [Eduardo FERNANDEZ and Reinaldo GARGANO], Communist Party [Eduardo LORIER], Uruguayan Assembly (Asamblea Uruguay) [Danilo ASTORI], and Vertiente Artiguista [Mariano ARANA]); Colorado Party (Foro Batllista) [Pedro BORDABERRY and Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; National Party or Blanco [Luis Alberto LACALLE and Jorge LARRANAGA]
Uzbekistan Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (Ozbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIXONOV]; Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Sobir TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Tadbirkorlar va Ishbilarmonlar Harakati) or LDPU [Baxtiyor YOQUBOV]; National Rebirth Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish) [Ulugbek MUHAMMADIYEV]; People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Ulugbek VAFOYEV] (formerly Communist Party)
Vanuatu Greens Confederation or GC [Moana CARCASSES]; Iauko Group or IG [NA]; Land and Justice Party (Graon mo Jastis Pati) or GJP [Ralph REGENVANU]; Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE]; Nagriamel movement or NAG [NA]; Natatok Indigenous People's Democratic Party or (NATATOK) or NIPDP [Alfred Roland CARLOT]; National United Party or NUP [Ham LINI]; People's Progressive Party or PPP [Sato KILMAN]; People's Service Party or PSP [Don KEN]; Reunification of Movement for Change or (RMC) [Charlot SALWAI]; Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR]; Vanua'aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI]; Vanuatu Democratic Party [Maxime Carlot KORMAN]; Vanuatu Liberal Democratic Party or VLDP [Tapangararua WILLIE]; Vanuatu National Party or VNP [Issac HAMARILIU]; Vanuatu Progressive Development Party or VPDP [Robert Bohn SIKOL]; Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Marcellino PIPITE]
Venezuela A New Time or UNT [Omar BARBOZA]; Brave People's Alliance or ABP [Antonio LEDEZMA]; Christian Democrats or COPEI [Roberto ENRIQUEZ]; Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Oscar FIGUERA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS ALLUP]; Fatherland for All or PPT [Rafael UZCATEGUI]; For Social Democracy or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Nicolas SOSA]; Popular Will or VP [Leopoldo LOPEZ]; Progressive Wave or AP [Henri FALCON]; The Democratic Unity Table or MUD [Ramon Guillermo AVELEDO]; The Radical Cause [Daniel SANTOLO]; United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Venezuelan Progressive Movement or MPV [Simon CALZADILLA]; Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS ROMER]
Vietnam Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG]; other parties proscribed
Virgin Islands Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE]
Wallis and Futuna Lua Kae Tahi (Giscardians); Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche or MRG; Rally for the Republic or RPR (UMP); Socialist Party or PS; Taumu'a Lelei; Union Populaire Locale or UPL; Union Pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF
Yemen General People's Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah AL-YADUMI]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Sultan al-ATWANI]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Yasin Said NU'MAN]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties
Zambia Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]; National Restoration Party or NAREP [Elias CHIPIMO]; Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA (a coalition of RP, ZADECO, PUDD, and ZRP); United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]
Zimbabwe African National Party or ANP [Egypt DZINEMUNHENZVA]; Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE]; Peace Action is Freedom for All or PAFA; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]; Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance or ZIYA
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  The online Factbook is updated weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
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