In addition to the updating of information, the following changes have been
made in this edition of The World Factbook. There is a new 'country profile'
on the Southern Ocean. The name Wake Atoll has been officially changed back
to Wake Island. There are new entries on Internet Service Providers (ISPs),
Telephones - main lines in use, and Telephones - mobile cellular.
The Background entry, which was introduced in the 1999 edition, has now
been completed for over 200 countries. The terms and abbreviations used in the
Environment-current issues entry are now explained in the Notes and
Definitions section of the prefatory material.
Abbreviations: This information is included in Appendix
A: Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used
in the Factbook, with their expansions.
Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory
terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board
on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted
on by BGN are noted.
Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the population
according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years,
15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a
nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage
under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations
(high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector.
The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues.
For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment
can lead to unrest.
Agriculture - products: This entry is a rank ordering of major crops
and products starting with the most important.
Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s)
may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or
gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control.
Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of
airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces). For airports with
more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following
five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m,
(4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are
included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance,
or air traffic control.
Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number
of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces). For
airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according
to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524
to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable
runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control.
Appendixes: This section includes Factbook-related material
Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the
sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international
boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs,
rivers). Water area is the sum of all water surfaces delimited by international
boundaries and/or coastlines, including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs,
Area - comparative: This entry provides an area comparison based on
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one
of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US
Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC
(178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi,
Background: This entry usually highlights major historic events and
current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of births during
a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth
rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate
of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age
structure of the population.
Budget: This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital
expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e.,
not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Capital: This entry gives the location of the seat of government.
Climate: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather
regimes throughout the year.
Coastline: This entry gives the total length of the boundary between
the land area (including islands) and the sea.
Communications: This category deals with the means of exchanging information
and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet service provider
Communications - note: This entry includes miscellaneous communications
information of significance not included elsewhere.
Constitution: This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions,
and major amendments.
Country map: Most versions of the Factbook provide a country
map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at
the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.
Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved
by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional
long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local
long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former
(Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology
Currency: This entry identifies the national medium of exchange and
its basic subunit.
Data code: This entry gives the official US Government digraph that
precisely identifies every land entity without overlap, duplication, or omission.
AF, for example, is the data code for Afghanistan. This two-letter country code
is a standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the Federal Information
Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 10-4 by the National Institute of
Standards and Technology at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by
the Office of the Geographer and Global Issues at the US Department of State.
The data code is used to eliminate confusion and incompatibility in the collection,
processing, and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly useful
for interchanging data between databases. Appendix F cross-references
various country data codes and Appendix G cross-references
various hydrographic data codes.
Data codes - country: This information is presented in Appendix
F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes which includes the US
Government approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and Internet codes
for land entities.
Data codes - hydrographic: This information is presented in Appendix
G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes which includes the
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart and
Information Center (ACIC; now a part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency
or NIMA) codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) codes for hydrographic
entities. The US Government has not yet approved a standard for hydrographic
data codes similar to the FIPS 10-4 standard for country data codes.
Date of information: In general, information available as of 1 January
2000, was used in the preparation of this edition.
Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during
a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The
death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country,
accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This
indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries
will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued
decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging
Debt - external: This entry gives the total amount of public foreign
Dependency status: This entry describes the formal relationship between
a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.
Dependent areas: This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all
nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent
Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations
with 184 independent states, including 181 of the 188 UN members (excluded UN
members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia, and the
US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 3 independent
states that are not in the UN - Holy See, Switzerland, and Tuvalu.
Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes the chief
of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone
number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general
locations, and consulate locations.
Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the chief
of the foreign mission, chancery address, telephone
number, FAX number, consulate general locations, consulate
locations, honorary consulate general locations, and honorary consulate
Disputes - international: This entry includes a wide variety of situations
that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims
of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial
and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References
to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such
as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however,
inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition
by the US Government.
Economic aid - donor: This entry refers to net official development
assistance (ODA) from OECD nations to developing countries and multilateral
organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in
character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare
of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least
25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows.
Economic aid - recipient: This entry, which is subject to major problems
of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official
Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance
from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from
individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data.
Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various
forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference
between new inflows and repayments.
Economy: This category includes the entries dealing with the size,
development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and
Economy - overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy,
including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development,
the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.
It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent
12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic
Electricity - consumption: This entry consists of total electricity
generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt hours.
The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported
and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission
Electricity - exports: This entry is the total exported electricity
in kilowatt hours.
Electricity - imports: This entry is the total imported electricity
in kilowatt hours.
Electricity - production: This entry is the annual electricity generated
expressed in kilowatt hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity
generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted
for as loss in transmission and distribution.
Electricity - production by source: This entry indicates the percentage
share of annual electricity production of each energy source. These are fossil
fuel, hydro, nuclear, and other (solar, geothermal, and wind).
Elevation extremes: This entry includes both the highest point
and the lowest point.
Entities: Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent,
and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent
state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state
with a definite territory. "Dependencies" and "areas of special
sovereignty" refer to a broad category of political entities that are associated
in some way with an independent state. "Country" names used in the
table of contents or for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved
by the US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states, dependencies,
and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are a
total of 267 separate geographic entities in The World Factbook that
may be categorized as follows:
|191||Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe|
DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF
|6||Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island|
2 China - Hong Kong, Macau
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
|16||France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna|
2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
|15||UK - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands|
|14||US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island|
6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara
5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean
Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and
important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are
used throughout the entry:
acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain).
acid rain characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater that 7 are considered alkaline, and anything measured below 5.6 is considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England.
asbestos a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic.
biodiversity - also biological diversity; many species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.
catchments assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.
DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.
defoliants chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.
deforestation the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth.
desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change.
dredging - in general, the practice of deepening an existing waterway; more specifically, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.
driftnet fishing done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean".
ecosystems ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments.
effluents waste materials, such as smoke or sewage, which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.
endangered species a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.
freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.
groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs.
Highlands Water Project a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources.
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) represents the 125,000 Inuits of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues; a panel convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are longrange transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.
metallurgical plants industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed.
noxious substances injurious, very harmful to living beings.
overgrazing the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.
ozone shield a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms.
poaching the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species.
pollution the contamination of a healthy environment by manmade waste.
potable water water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.
salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process.
siltation occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.
slashandburn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment .
soil degradation damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of top soil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products.
soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification.
ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.
water-born diseases those in which the bacteria survive in,
and is transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an
untreated water supply.
Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country
participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party
to and signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical
order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
Environmental agreements: This information is presented in Appendix
D: Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the
name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force, objective,
and parties by category.
Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups
starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.
Exchange rates: This entry provides the official value of a country's
monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in
units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market
forces or official fiat.
Executive branch: This entry includes several subfields. Chief of
state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who
represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved
with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government
includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated
to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. Cabinet includes
the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for
selection of members. Elections includes the nature of election process
or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election.
Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the
last election. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister
is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state
and the head of government.
Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of exports
on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
Exports - commodities: This entry provides a rank ordering of exported
products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent
of total dollar value.
Exports - partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading
partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent
of total dollar value.
Fiscal year: This entry identifies the beginning and ending months
for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar
year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar
year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
Flag description: This entry provides a written flag description produced
from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was
written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless
there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas
do not have flags.
Flag graphic: Most versions of the Factbook include a color
flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced
from actual flags or the best information available at the time of preparation.
The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there
is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not
GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of
all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar
estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more information.
GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates
for all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations
rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method
involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are
applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy.
The data derived from the PPP method provide the best available starting point
for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. The division
of a GDP estimate in domestic currency by the corresponding PPP estimate in
dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries
are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations.
Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published
by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert
Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues.
In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international
and domestic financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output.
In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP
in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore,
exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces
or official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994,
for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies
are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of
course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One important
caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP
in local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when
GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries
to estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note:
the numbers for GDP and other economic data can not be chained together
from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US
dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new
or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods
GDP - composition by sector: This entry gives the percentage contribution
of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP.
GDP - per capita: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity
basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
GDP - real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis
adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude
figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity
and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August
1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.
Geographic names: This information is presented in Appendix
H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names which indicates where various
geographic names - including alternate names, former names, political or geographical
portions of larger entities, and the location of all US Foreign Service posts
- can be found in The World Factbook. Spellings are normally, but not
always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate
names are included in parentheses, while additional information is included
Geography: This category includes the entries dealing with the natural
environment and the effects of human activity.
Geography - note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information
of significance not included elsewhere.
GNP: Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its
citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.
The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than
GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain
countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national
Government: This category includes the entries dealing with the system
for the adoption and administration of public policy.
Government type: This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g.,
republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy,
Government - note: This entry includes miscellaneous government information
of significance not included elsewhere.
Gross domestic product: see GDP
Gross national product: see GNP
Gross world product: see GWP
GWP: This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value
of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.
Heliports: This entry gives the total number of established helicopter
takeoff and landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).
Highways: This entry includes the total length of the highway
system as well as the length of the paved and unpaved components.
Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household
income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for
household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting
and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal
distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving
with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia.
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and semisynthetic narcotics.
Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature, dried opium poppy.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity,
and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine),
ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor, Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin),
methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).
Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of imports
on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
Imports - commodities: This entry provides a rank ordering of imported
products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent
of total dollar value.
Imports - partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading
partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent
of total dollar value.
Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty
was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries,
the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense,
but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding
date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental
change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include
the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status.
Also see the Terminology note.
Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage
increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
Industries: This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting
with the largest by value of annual output.
Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of infants
under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This
rate is often used an indicator of the level of health in a country.
Inflation rate (consumer prices): This entry furnishes the annual percent
change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): This entry supplies the number
of Internet Service Providers within a country. An ISP is defined as a company
that provides access to the Internet.
International disputes: see Disputes - international
International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical
order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject
country is a member or participates in some other way.
International organizations: This information is presented in Appendix
C: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation,
address, telephone, FAX, date established, aim, and members by category.
Introduction: This category includes one entry, Background.
Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of
land area that is artificially supplied with water.
Judicial branch: This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s)
and a brief description of the selection process for members.
Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
Labor force - by occupation: This entry contains a rank ordering of
component parts of the labor force by occupation.
Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries
and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.
Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area
for five different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for
crops that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and rice; permanent
crops - land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after each harvest
like citrus, coffee, and rubber; permanent pastures - land permanently
used for herbaceous forage crops; forests and woodland - land under dense
or open stands of trees; other - any land type not specifically mentioned
above, such as urban areas, roads, desert, etc.
Languages: This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking
Legal system: This entry contains a brief description of the legal
system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure
(unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term
of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession
to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election
results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each
party in the last election.
Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of
years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at
each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population
as well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also
a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality
at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on
investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various
Literacy: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau
percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal
definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates
are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a
specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess
the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information
on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably
the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels
of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of
a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.
Location: This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring
countries, and adjacent bodies of water.
Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference
map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates
may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.
Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims: contiguous
zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, exclusive fishing zone, extended
fishing zone, none (usually for a landlocked country), other (unique maritime
claims like Libya's Gulf of Sidra Closing Line or North Korea's Military Boundary
Line), and territorial sea. The proximity of neighboring states may prevent
some national claims from being extended the full distance.
Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.; or a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. This entry contains information in two subfields - total and ships by type. Total includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, intermodal ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunction large-load carriers, oil tankers, passenger ships, passenger-cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, tanker tug-barges, and vehicle carriers.
A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a territory, possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the parent country; it is also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.
A flag of convenience register is a national register offering registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.
A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and which holds legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how a ship is crewed and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.
An internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset of a national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign nationals as crew members, and, usually, ownership outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.
A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; it is commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to commercial vessels only.
A register is the record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with
the maritime authorities of a country; also, it is the compendium of such individual
ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a nationality
and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered (the flag
state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.
Military: This category includes the entries dealing with a country's
military structure, manpower, and expenditures.
Military branches: This entry lists the names of the ground, naval,
air, marine, and other defense or security forces.
Military expenditures - dollar figure: This entry gives current military
expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated
defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated
on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
However, in the case of Russia, estimates of military expenditures have been
made using PPP. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with
caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations,
as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies.
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: This entry gives current military
expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
Military manpower - availability: This entry gives the total numbers
of males and females age 15-49 and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
Military manpower - fit for military service: This entry gives the
number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more
refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to correct
for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum potential number
to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
Military manpower - military age: This entry gives the minimum age
at which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject to conscription.
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: This entry gives
the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool
in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
Military - note: This entry includes miscellaneous military information
of significance not included elsewhere.
Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.
National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day of celebration
- usually independence day.
Nationality: This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens
- noun and adjective.
Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural disasters.
Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum,
hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.
Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the difference
between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year
per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering
the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population);
an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000
population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration
to the overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause
problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife (if people
are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain key sectors
(if people are leaving).
People: This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics
of the people and their society.
People - note: This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information
of significance not included elsewhere.
Personal Names - Capitalization: The Factbook capitalizes the
surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are
faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. An example
would be President SADDAM Husayn of Iraq. Saddam is his name and Husayn
is his father's name. He may be referred to as President SADDAM Husayn or President
SADDAM, but not President Husayn. The need for capitalization, bold type,
underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's surname is
apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, William Jefferson
CLINTON, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin
Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters
can be used with confidence as in President Saddam, President Castro, Chairman
Mao, President Clinton, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization
is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used
such as Queen ELIZABETH II.
Personal Names - Spelling: The romanization of personal names in the
Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the
US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a
foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official
documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration
derived from the US Government standard. In such cases, the Factbook
uses the alternative spelling.
Personal Names - Titles: The Factbook capitalizes any valid
title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing
alone is lowercased. Examples: President PUTIN and President CLINTON are chiefs
of state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is the
head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state
and head of government.
Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for
transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.
Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of significant
political organizations and their leaders.
Political pressure groups and leaders: This entry includes a listing
of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative
Population: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the
Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration
systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions
about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the
potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: starting
with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly
African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact
of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin,
Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central
African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote
d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand,
Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage
of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups,
with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions
of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally
employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the population,
resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance
of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.
The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed
on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools,
hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and
jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.
Ports and harbors: This entry lists the major ports and harbors selected
on the basis of overall importance to each country. This is determined by evaluating
a number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross tonnage, facilities,
Radio broadcast stations: This entry includes the total number of AM,
FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.
Radios: This entry gives the total number of radio receivers.
Railways: This entry includes the total route length of the
railway network and component parts by gauge: broad, dual, narrow,
standard, and other.
Reference maps: This section includes world, regional, and special
or current interest maps.
Religions: This entry includes a rank ordering of religions by adherents
starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total
Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each female
in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years,
65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at
birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination
in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries
are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong
preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility
patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable
to find partners.
Suffrage: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the
right to vote is universal or restricted.
Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist
of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses,
and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international
access code, which varies from country to country. For example, an international
direct dial telephone call placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as
011  (1) 577-xxxx, where
011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls
(01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),
 is the country code for Spain,
(1) is the city code for Madrid,
577 is the local exchange, and
xxxx is the local telephone number.
An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country to
the US would be as follows:
international access code +  (202) 939-xxxx, where
 is the country code for the US,
(202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
939 is the local exchange, and
xxxx is the local telephone number.
Telephone system: This entry includes a brief characterization of the
system with details on the domestic and international components.
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
Africa ONE - a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the continent of Africa.
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).
Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a regular telephone exchange.
Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.
coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.
Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.
HF - high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.
Inmarsat - International Mobile Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.
Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC).
Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground.
Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system.
Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.
microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network.
radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.
PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provides long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
SHF - super-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.
shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances.
Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications.
submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.
telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.
telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.
trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.
UHF - ultra-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range.
VHF - very-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz
Telephones - main lines in use: This entry gives the total number of
main telephone lines in use.
Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of
mobile cellular telephones in use.
Television - broadcast stations: This entry gives the total number
of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.
Televisions: This entry gives the total number of television sets.
Terminology: Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook
database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word
Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of
dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities
in addition to the traditional countries or independent states. Military
is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense
activities in many entries. The Independence entry includes the usual
colonial independence dates and former ruling states as well as other significant
nationhood dates such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification,
federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly
independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status
noted in this same entry.
Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the topography.
Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number
of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their
childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at
each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of
fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This
indicator shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates
will also place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women.
Large numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might
limit the ability of the families to feed and educate their children.
Transnational Issues: This category includes only two entries at the
present time - Disputes - international and Illicit drugs - that
deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.
Transportation: This category includes the entries dealing with the
means for movement of people and goods.
Transportation - note: This entry includes miscellaneous transportation
information of significance not included elsewhere.
Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force
that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
United Nations System: This information is presented in Appendix
B: United Nations System as a chart, table, or text (depending on the
version of the Factbook) that shows the organization of the UN in detail.
Waterways: This entry gives the total length and individual names of
navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.
Weights and measures: This information is presented in Appendix
E: Weights and Measures and includes mathematical notations (mathematical
powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight,
or capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.
Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated
as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12 months
from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12
months other than 1 January to 31 December.
Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community