FidoNet Policy Document Version 4.1c January 17, 1993
1. *C's elected by sysops for two year terms, except IC which is
appointed (or removed) by 2/3 ZC's. There is a replacement
election procedure added (recall), impeachment removed. THIS IS
THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL CHANGE.
2. Election rules issued by IC
3. Fidonews address changed
4. Updated to agree with present practice.
5. Appeal of ZC decision now ONLY to IC.
6. Referendum on policy changes may now be tripped by 5% of sysops
7. Examples in section 10 removed.
8. Duplicate statements removed.
9. Minor clean up.
This policy document is being submitted for ratification in
accordance with the provisions of version 4.07. If ratified it
supersedes version 4.07 passed June 9, 1989
This document establishes the policy for sysops who are members of
the FidoNet organization of electronic mail systems. FidoNet is
defined by the NodeList segments issued weekly under the direction
and supervision of the International Coordinator.
Separate policy documents may be issued at the zone, region, or net
level to provide additional detail on local procedures.
Ordinarily, these lower-level policies may not contradict this
policy. However, with the approval of the International
Coordinator, local policy can be used to implement differences
required due to local conditions. These local policies may not
place additional restrictions on members of FidoNet beyond those
included in this document, other than enforcement of local mail
The official language of FidoNet is English. All documents must
exist in English. Translation into other languages is encouraged.
FidoNet is an amateur electronic mail system. As such, all of its
participants and operators are unpaid volunteers. From its early
beginning as a few friends swapping messages back and forth (1984),
it now (1993) includes over 20,000 systems on six continents.
FidoNet is not a common carrier or a value-added service network
and is a public network only in as much as the independent,
constituent nodes may individually provide public access to the
network on their system.
FidoNet is large enough that it would quickly fall apart of its own
weight unless some sort of structure and control were imposed on
it. Multi-net operation provides the structure. Decentralized
management provides the control. This document describes the
procedures which have been developed to manage the network.
FidoNet systems are grouped on several levels, and administration
is decentralized to correspond with these groupings. This overview
provides a summary of the structure; specific duties of the
coordinator positions are given later in the document.
1.2.1 Individual Systems and System Operators
The smallest subdivision of FidoNet is the individual system,
corresponding to a single entry in the nodelist. The system
operator (Fidonet Sysop) formulates a policy for running the board
and dealing with users. The sysop must mesh with the rest of the
FidoNet system to send and receive mail, and the local policy must
be consistent with other levels of FidoNet.
The sysop is responsible for the actions of any user when they
affect the rest of FidoNet. (If a user is annoying, the sysop is
annoying.) Any traffic entering FidoNet via a given node, if not
from the sysop, is considered to be from a user and is the
responsibility of the sysop. (See section 2.1.3.)
A point is a FidoNet-compatible system that is not in the nodelist,
but communicates with FidoNet through a node referred to as a
bossnode. A point is generally regarded in the same manner as a
user, for example, the bossnode is responsible for mail from the
point. (See section 2.1.3.) Points are addressed by using the
bossnode's nodelist address; for example, a point system with a
bossnode of 114/15 might be known as 114/15.12. Mail destined for
the point is sent to the bossnode, which then routes it to the
In supporting points, the bossnode may make use of a private net
number which should not be generally visible outside of the
bossnode-point relationship. Unfortunately, should the point call
another system directly (to do a file request, for example), the
private network number will appear as the caller's address. In
this way, points are different from users, since they operate
FidoNet-compatible mailers which are capable of contacting systems
other than the bossnode.
1.2.3 Networks and Network Coordinators
A network is a collection of nodes in a local geographic area,
usually defined by an area of convenient telephone calling.
Networks coordinate their mail activity to decrease cost.
The Network Coordinator is responsible for maintaining the list of
nodes for the network, and for forwarding netmail sent to members
of the network from other FidoNet nodes. The Network Coordinator
may make arrangements to handle outgoing netmail, but is not
required to do so.
The Network Coordinator is elected by a majority of votes cast by
Fidonet Sysops in a Net, and serves a term of two years.
22.214.171.124 Network Routing Hubs
Network Routing Hubs exist only in some networks. They may be
appointed by the Network Coordinator, in order to assist in the
management of a large network. The exact duties and procedures are
a matter for the Network Coordinator and the hubs to arrange, and
will not be discussed here, except that a network coordinator
cannot delegate responsibility to mediate disputes.
1.2.4 Regions and Regional Coordinators
A region is a well-defined geographic area containing nodes which
may or may not be combined into networks. A typical region will
contain many nodes in networks, and a few independent nodes which
are not a part of any network.
The Regional Coordinator maintains the list of independent nodes
in the region and accepts nodelists from the Network Coordinators
in the region. These are compiled to create a regional nodelist,
which is then sent to the Zone Coordinator. A Regional Coordinator
does not perform message-forwarding services for any nodes in the
The Regional Coordinator is elected by a majority of votes cast by
the Fidonet Sysops in the Region, and serves a term of two years.
1.2.5 Zones and Zone Coordinators
A Zone is a large geographic area containing many regions, covering
one or more countries and/or continents.
The Zone Coordinator compiles the nodelists from all of the regions
in the zone, and creates the master nodelist and difference file,
which is then distributed over FidoNet in the zone. A Zone
Coordinator does not perform message-forwarding services for any
nodes in the zone.
Zone Coordinators are elected by a majority of votes cast by the
Fidonet Sysop in the Zone. They serve a term of two years.
1.2.6 Zone Coordinator Council
In certain cases, the Zone Coordinators work as a council to
provide advice to the International Coordinator. The arrangement
is similar to that between a president and advisors. In
particular, this council considers inter-zonal issues. This
includes, but is not limited to: working out the details of
nodelist production, mediating inter-zonal disputes, and such
issues not addressed at a lower level of FidoNet.
1.2.7 International Coordinator
The International Coordinator coordinates the joint production of
the master nodelist by the Zone Coordinators.
The International Coordinator acts as the chair of the Zone
Coordinator Council and as the overseer of elections -- arranging
the announcement of referenda, the collection and counting of the
ballots, and announcing the results for those issues that affect
FidoNet as a whole.
The International Coordinator is selected (or removed) by a two
thirds majority of the Zone Coordinators, and serves a term of two
1.2.8 Top-down Organization. Checks and Balances.
These levels act to distribute the administration and control of
FidoNet to the lowest possible level, while still allowing for
coordinated action over the entire mail system. Administration is
made possible by operating in a top-down manner. That is, a person
at any given level is responsible to the level above, and
responsible for the level below.
For example, a Regional Coordinator is responsible to the Zone
Coordinator for anything that happens in the region. From the
point of view of the Zone Coordinator, the Regional Coordinator is
completely responsible for the smooth operation of the region.
Likewise, from the point of view of the Regional Coordinator, the
Network Coordinator is completely responsible for the smooth
operation of the network.
Understanding that there may be rare occasions where a coordinator
may need to be replaced, a replacement election may be held upon
petition of 20% of the number of individuals on one level lower.
Only TWO such elections may be held during the term of a
coordinator. In the event such an election results in a
replacement coordinator, the replacement coordinator shall serve
out the remainder of the term without being subject to a
replacement election. (Choose your candidates wisely).
Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to allow a replacement
coordinator to violate this policy.
1.2.9 Election Procedures
The International Coordinator shall issue such reasonable rules and
regulations to carry out the elections required herein, provided
however, no sysop shall be prevented from running for any elected
FidoNews is a weekly newsletter distributed in electronic form
throughout the network. It is an important medium by which FidoNet
sysops communicate with each other. FidoNews provides a sense of
being a community of people with common interests. Accordingly,
sysops and users are encouraged to contribute to FidoNews.
Contributions are submitted to node 1:1/23; a file describing the
format to be used is available from 1:1/23 and many other systems.
Each level of FidoNet is geographically contained by the level
immediately above it. A given geographic location is covered by
one zone and one region within that zone, and is either in one
network or not in a network. There are never two zones, two
regions, or two networks which cover the same geographic area.
If a node is in the area of a network, it should be listed in that
network, not as an independent in the region. (The primary
exception to this is a node receiving inordinate amounts of host-
routed mail; see section 4.2). Network boundaries are based on
calling areas as defined by the local telephone company. Even in
the case of areas where node density is so great that more than one
network is needed to serve one local calling area, a geographic
guideline is used to decide which nodes belong to what network.
Network membership is based on geographic or other purely technical
rationale. It is not based on personal or social factors.
There are cases in which the local calling areas lead to situations
where logic dictates that a node physically in one FidoNet Region
should be assigned to another. In those cases, with the agreement
of the Regional Coordinators and Zone Coordinator involved,
exemptions may be granted. Such exemptions are described in
1.3.3 Zone Mail Hour
Zone Mail Hour (ZMH) is a defined time during which all nodes in
a zone are required to be able to accept netmail. Each Fidonet
zone defines a ZMH and publishes the time of its ZMH to all other
Fidonet zones. See sections 2.1.8 and 10.2.
Zone Mail Hour has previously been referred to as National Mail
Hour and Network Mail hour. The term Zone Mail Hour is more
The nodelist is a file updated weekly which contains the addresses
of all recognized FidoNet nodes. This file is currently made
available by the Zone Coordinator not later than Zone Mail Hour
each Saturday, and is available electronically for download or file
request at no charge. To be included in the nodelist, a system
must meet the requirements defined by this document. No other
requirements may be imposed.
Partial nodelists (single-zone, for example) may be made available
at different levels in FidoNet. The full list, produced under the
direction and supervision of the International Coordinator is
regarded as the official FidoNet nodelist, and is used in
circumstances such as determination of eligibility for voting. All
parts that make up the full nodelist are available on each Zone
Coordinator's and each Regional Coordinator's system.
1.3.5 Excessively Annoying Behavior
There are references throughout this policy to "excessively
annoying behavior", especially in section 9 (Resolution of
Disputes). It is difficult to define this term, as it is based
upon the judgement of the coordinator structure. Generally
speaking, annoying behavior irritates, bothers, or causes harm to
some other person. It is not necessary to break a law to be
There is a distinction between excessively annoying behavior and
(simply) annoying behavior. For example, there is a learning curve
that each new sysop must climb, both in the technical issues of how
to set up the software and the social issues of how to interact
with FidoNet. It is a rare sysop who, at some point in this
journey, does not manage to annoy others. Only when such behavior
persists, after being pointed out to the sysop, does it becomes
excessively annoying. This does not imply that it is not possible
to be excessively annoying without repetition (for example,
deliberate falsification of mail would likely be excessively
annoying on the very first try), but simply illustrates that a
certain amount of tolerance is extended.
1.3.6 Commercial Use
FidoNet is an amateur network. Participants spend their own time
and money to make it work for the good of all the users. It is not
appropriate for a commercial enterprise to take advantage of these
volunteer efforts to further their own business interests. On the
other hand, FidoNet provides a convenient and effective means for
companies and users to exchange information, to the mutual benefit
Network Coordinators could be forced to subsidize commercial
operations by forwarding host-routed netmail, and could even find
themselves involved in a lawsuit if any guarantee was suggested for
mail delivery. It is therefore FidoNet policy that commercial mail
is not to be routed. "Commercial mail" includes mail which
furthers specific business interests without being of benefit to
the net as a whole. Examples include company-internal mail, inter-
corporate mail, specific product inquiries (price quotes, for
instance), orders and their follow-ups, and all other subjects
specifically related to business.
2 Sysop Procedures
2.1.1 The Basics
As the sysop of an individual node, you can generally do as you
please, as long as you observe mail events, are not excessively
annoying to other nodes in FidoNet, and do not promote or
participate in the distribution of pirated copyrighted software or
other illegal behavior via FidoNet.
2.1.2 Familiarity with Policy
In order to understand the meaning of "excessively annoying", it
is incumbent upon all sysops to occasionally re-read FidoNet
policy. New sysops must familiarize themselves with policy before
requesting a node number.
2.1.3 Responsible for All Traffic Entering FidoNet Via the Node
The sysop listed in the nodelist entry is responsible for all
traffic entering FidoNet via that system. This includes (but is
not limited to) traffic entered by users, points, and any other
networks for which the system might act as a gateway. If a sysop
allows "outside" messages to enter FidoNet via the system, the
gateway system must be clearly identified by FidoNet node number
as the point of origin of that message, and it must act as a
gateway in the reverse direction. Should such traffic result in
a violation of Policy, the sysop must rectify the situation.
2.1.4 Encryption and Review of Mail
FidoNet is an amateur system. Our technology is such that the
privacy of messages cannot be guaranteed. As a sysop, you have the
right to review traffic flowing through your system, if for no
other reason than to ensure that the system is not being used for
illegal or commercial purposes. Encryption obviously makes this
review impossible. Therefore, encrypted and/or commercial traffic
that is routed without the express permission of all the links in
the delivery system constitutes annoying behavior. See section
1.3.6 for a definition of commercial traffic.
2.1.5 No Alteration of Routed Mail
You may not modify, other than as required for routing or other
technical purposes, any message, netmail or echomail, passing
through the system from one FidoNet node to another. If you are
offended by the content of a message, the procedure described in
section 2.1.7 must be used.
2.1.6 Private Netmail
The word "private" should be used with great care, especially with
users of a BBS. Some countries have laws which deal with "private
mail", and it should be made clear that the word "private" does not
imply that no person other than the recipient can read messages.
Sysops who cannot provide this distinction should consider not
offering users the option of "private mail".
If a user sends a "private message", the user has no control over
the number of intermediate systems through which that message is
routed. A sysop who sends a message to another sysop can control
this aspect by sending the message direct to the recipient's
system, thus guaranteeing that only the recipient or another
individual to whom that sysop has given authorization can read the
message. Thus, a sysop may have different expectations than a
126.96.36.199 No Disclosure of in-transit mail
Disclosing or in any way using information contained in private
netmail traffic not addressed to you or written by you is
considered annoying behavior, unless the traffic has been released
by the author or the recipient as a part of a formal policy
complaint. This does not apply to echomail which is by definition
a broadcast medium, and where private mail is often used to keep
a sysop-only area restricted.
188.8.131.52 Private mail addressed to you
The issue of private mail which is addressed to you is more
difficult than the in-transit question treated in the previous
section. A common legal opinion holds that when you receive a
message it becomes your property and you have a legal right to do
with it what you wish. Your legal right does not excuse you from
In general, sensitive material should not be sent using FidoNet.
This ideal is often compromised, as FidoNet is our primary mode of
communication. In general, if the sender of a message specifically
requests in the text of the message that the contents be kept
confidential, release of the message into a public forum may be
There are exceptions. If someone is saying one thing in public and
saying the opposite in private mail, the recipient of the private
mail should not be subjected to harassment simply because the
sender requests that the message not be released. Judgement and
common sense should be used in this area as in all other aspects
of FidoNet behavior.
2.1.7 Not Routing Mail
You are not required to route traffic if you have not agreed to do
so. You are not obligated to route traffic for all if you route
it for any, unless you hold a Network Coordinator or Hub
Coordinator position. Routing traffic through a node not obligated
to perform routing without the permission of that node may be
annoying behavior. This includes unsolicited echomail.
If you do not forward a message when you previously agreed to
perform such routing, the message must be returned to the sysop of
the node at which it entered FidoNet with an explanation of why it
was not forwarded. (It is not necessary to return messages which
are addressed to a node which is not in the current nodelist.)
Intentionally stopping an in-transit message without following this
procedure constitutes annoying behavior. In the case of a failure
to forward traffic due to a technical problem, it does not become
annoying unless it persists after being pointed out to the sysop.
2.1.8 Exclusivity of Zone Mail Hour
Zone Mail Hour is the heart of FidoNet, as this is when network
mail is passed between systems. Any system which wishes to be a
part of FidoNet must be able to receive mail during this time using
the protocol defined in the current FidoNet Technical Standards
Committee publication (FTS-0001 at this writing). It is
permissible to have greater capability (for example, to support
additional protocols or extended mail hours), but the minimum
requirement is FTS-0001 capability during this one hour of the day.
This time is exclusively reserved for netmail. Many phone systems
charge on a per-call basis, regardless of whether a connect, no
connect, or busy signal is encountered. For this reason, any
activity other than normal network mail processing that ties up a
system during ZMH is considered annoying behavior. Echomail should
not be transferred during ZMH. User (BBS) access to a system is
prohibited during ZMH.
A system which is a member of a local network may also be required
to observe additional mail events, as defined by the Network
Coordinator. Access restrictions during local network periods are
left to the discretion of the Network Coordinator.
2.1.9 Private Nodes
The rare exception to ZMH compliance is private nodes. Persons
requesting private nodes should be supported as points if possible.
A private listing is justified when the system must interface with
many others, such as an echomail distributor. In these cases, the
exact manner and timing of mail delivery is arranged between the
private node and other systems. Such an agreement between a
private system and a hub is not binding on any replacement for that
hub. A private node must be a part of a network (they cannot be
independents in the region.)
Private listings impact each member of FidoNet, since they take up
space in everyone's nodelist. Private listings which are for the
convenience of one sysop (at the expense of every other sysop in
FidoNet) are a luxury which is no longer possible. Non-essential
redundant listings (more than one listing for the same telephone
number, except as mandated by FTSC standards) also fall into this
category. Sysops requesting private or redundant listings must
justify them with a statement explaining how they benefit the local
net or FidoNet as a whole. The Network, Regional or Zone
Coordinator may review this statement at any time and
listings which are not justified will be removed.
2.1.10 Observing Mail Events
Failure to observe the proper mail events is grounds for any node
to be dropped from FidoNet without notice (since notice is
generally given by netmail).
2.1.11 Use of Current Nodelist
Network mail systems generally operate unattended, and place calls
at odd hours of the night. If a system tries to call an incorrect
or out-of-date number, it could cause some poor citizen's phone to
ring in the wee hours of the morning, much to the annoyance of
innocent bystanders and civil authorities. For this reason, a
sysop who sends mail is obligated to obtain and use the most recent
edition of the nodelist as is practical.
A system which has been dropped from the network is said to be
excommunicated (i.e. denied communication). If you find that you
have been excommunicated without warning, your coordinator was
unable to contact you. You should rectify the problem and contact
Systems may also be dropped from the nodelist for cause. See
section 9, and sections 4.3 and 5.2.
It is considered annoying behavior to assist a system which was
excommunicated in circumventing that removal from the nodelist.
For example, if you decide to provide an echomail feed to your
friend who has been excommunicated, it is likely that your listing
will also be removed.
2.1.13 Timing of Zone Mail Hour
The exact timing of Zone Mail Hour for each zone is set by the Zone
Coordinator. See section 10.2.
2.1.14 Non-observance of Daylight Savings Time
FidoNet does not observe daylight savings time. In areas which
observe daylight savings time the FidoNet mail schedules must be
adjusted in the same direction as the clock change. Alternatively,
you can simply leave your system on standard time.
2.2 How to obtain a node number
You must first obtain a current nodelist so that you can send mail.
You do not need a node number to send mail, but you must have one
in order for others to send mail to you.
The first step in obtaining a current nodelist is to locate a
FidoNet node. Most bulletin board lists include at least a few
FidoNet systems, and usually identify them as such. Use a local
source to obtain documents because many networks have detailed
information available which explains the coverage area of the
network and any special requirements or procedures.
Once you have a nodelist, you must determine which network or
region covers your area. Networks are more restricted in area
than regions, but are preferred since they improve the flow of
mail and provide more services to their members. If you cannot
find a network which covers your area, then pick the region which
Once you have located the network or region in your area, send a
message containing a request for a node number to node zero of that
network or region. The request must be sent by netmail, as this
indicates that your system has FidoNet capability.
You must set up your software so that the from-address in your
message does not cause problems for the coordinator who receives
it. If you pick the address of an existing system, this will cause
obvious problems. If your software is capable of using address
-1/-1, this is the traditional address used by potential sysops.
Otherwise use net/9999 (e.g. if you are applying to net 123, set
your system up as 123/9999). Many nets have specific instructions
available to potential sysops and these procedures may indicate a
preference for the from-address.
The message you send must include at least the following
1) Your name.
2) Your voice telephone number
3) The name of your system.
4) The city and state where your system is located.
5) The phone number to be used when calling your system.
6) Your hours of operation, netmail and BBS.
7) The maximum baud rate you can support.
8) The type of mailer software and modem you are using.
Your coordinator may contact you for additional information. All
information submitted will be kept confidential and will not be
supplied to anyone except the person who assumes the coordinator
position at the resignation of the current coordinator. You must
indicate that you have read, and agree to abide by, this document
and all the current policies of FidoNet.
Please allow at least two weeks for a node number request to be
processed. If you send your request to a Regional Coordinator, it
may forwarded to the appropriate Network Coordinator.
2.3 If You are Going Down
If your node will be down for an extended period (more than a day
or two), inform your coordinator as soon as possible. It is not
your coordinator's responsibility to chase you down for a status
report, and if your system stops accepting mail it will be removed
from the nodelist.
Never put an answering machine or any other device which answers
the phone on your phone line while you are down. If you do,
calling systems will get the machine repeatedly, racking up large
phone bills, which is very annoying. In short, the only thing
which should ever answer the telephone during periods when the
nodelist indicates that your node will accept mail is FidoNet-
compatible software which accepts mail.
If you will be leaving your system unattended for an extended
period of time (such as while you are on vacation), you should
notify your coordinator. Systems have a tendency to "crash" now and
then, so you will probably want your coordinator to know that it
is a temporary condition if it happens while you are away.
2.4 How to Form a Network
If there are several nodes in your area, but no network, a new
network can be formed. This has advantages to both you and to the
rest of FidoNet. You receive better availability of nodelist
difference files and FidoNews, and everyone else can take advantage
of host-routing netmail to the new network.
The first step is to contact the other sysops in your area. You
must decide which nodes will comprise the network, and which of
those nodes you would like to be the Network Coordinator. Then
consult your Regional Coordinator. You must send the following
1) The region number(s), or network number(s) if a network is
splitting up, that are affected by the formation of your network.
The Regional Coordinator will inform the Zone Coordinator and the
coordinators of any affected networks that a new network is in
2) A copy of the proposed network's nodelist segment. This file
should be attached to the message of application for a network
number, and should use the nodelist format described in the current
version of the appropriate FTSC publication. Please elect a name
that relates to your grouping, for example SoCalNet for nodes in
the Southern California Area and MassNet West for the Western
Massachusetts Area. Remember if you call yourself DOGNET it
doesn't identify your area.
Granting a network number is not automatic. Even if the request
is granted, the network might not be structured exactly as you
request. Your Regional Coordinator will review your application
and inform you of the decision.
Do not send a network number request to the Zone Coordinator. All
network number requests must be processed by the Regional
3 General Procedures for All Coordinators
3.1 Make Available Difference Files and FidoNews
Any Coordinator is responsible for obtaining and making available,
on a weekly basis, nodelist difference files and FidoNews.
3.2 Processing Nodelist Changes and Passing Them Upstream
Each coordinator is responsible for obtaining nodelist information
from the level below, processing it, and passing the results to the
level above. The timing of this process is determined by the
requirements imposed by the level above.
3.3 Ensure the Latest Policy is Available
A Coordinator is responsible to make the current version of this
document available to the level below, and to encourage familiarity
In addition, a coordinator is required to forward any local
policies received to the level above, and to review such policies.
Although not required, common courtesy dictates that when
formulating a local policy, the participation of the level above
should be solicited.
3.4 Minimize the Number of Hats Worn
Coordinators are encouraged to limit the number of FidoNet
functions they perform. A coordinator who holds two different
positions compromises the appeal process. For example, if the
Network Coordinator is also the Regional Coordinator, sysops in
that network are denied one level of appeal.
Coordinators are discouraged from acting as echomail and software
distribution hubs. If they do so, they should handle echomail (or
other volume distribution) on a system other than the
administrative system. A coordinator's system should be readily
available to the levels immediately above and below.
Another reason to discourage multiple hats is the difficulty of
replacing services if someone leaves the network. For example, if
a coordinator is the echomail hub and the software-distribution
hub, those services will be difficult to restore when that person
3.5 Be a Member of the Area Administered
A coordinator must be a member of the area administered. That is,
a Network Coordinator must be a member of that network by virtue
of geography. A Regional Coordinator must be either a member of
a network in the region, or an independent in the region.
3.6 Encourage New Sysops to Enter FidoNet
A coordinator is encouraged to operate a public bulletin board
system which is freely available for the purpose of distributing
Policy, FidoNews, and Nodelists to potential new sysops.
Dissemination of this information to persons who are potential
FidoNet sysops is important to the growth of FidoNet, and
coordinators should encourage development of new systems.
3.7 Tradition and Precedent
A coordinator is not bound by the practices of predecessor or peers
beyond the scope of this document.
In addition, a new coordinator has the right to review any decision
made by predecessors for compliance with Policy, and take whatever
actions may be necessary to rectify any situations not in
3.8 Technical Management
The primary responsibility of any coordinator is technical
management of network operations. Decisions must be made on
4 Network Coordinator Procedures
A Network Coordinator has the following responsibilities:
1) To receive incoming mail for nodes in the network, and arrange
delivery to its recipients.
2) To assign node numbers to nodes in the network.
3) To maintain the nodelist for the network, and to send a copy of
it to the Regional Coordinator whenever it changes.
4) To make available to nodes in the network new nodelist
difference files, new issues of FidoNews, and new revisions of
Network Policy Documents as they are received, and to periodically
check to insure that nodes use up to date nodelists.
4.2 Routing Inbound Mail
It is your responsibility as Network Coordinator to coordinate the
receipt and forwarding of host-routed inbound netmail for nodes in
your network. The best way to accomplish this is left to your
If a node in your network is receiving large volumes of mail you
can request that the sysop contact the systems which are sending
this mail and request that they not host-route it. If the problem
persists, you can request your Regional Coordinator to assign the
node a number as an independent and drop the system from your
Occasionally a node will make a "bombing run" (sending one message
to a great many nodes). If a node in another network is making
bombing runs on your nodes and routing them through your inbound
host, then you can complain to the network coordinator of the
offending node. (If the node is an independent, complain to the
regional coordinator.) Bombing runs are considered to be annoying.
Another source of routing overload is echomail. Echomail cannot
be allowed to degrade the ability of FidoNet to handle normal
message traffic. If a node in your network is routing large
volumes of echomail, you can ask the sysop to either limit the
amount of echomail or to stop routing echomail.
You are not required to forward encrypted, commercial, or illegal
mail. However, you must follow the procedures described in section
2.1.7 if you do not forward the mail.
4.3 Assigning Node Numbers
It is your responsibility to assign node numbers to new nodes in
your network. You may also change the numbers of existing nodes
in your network, though you should check with your member nodes
before doing so. You may assign any numbers you wish, so long as
each node has a unique number within your network.
You must not assign a node number to any system until you have
received a formal request from that system by FidoNet mail. This
will ensure that the system is minimally operational. The strict
maintenance of this policy has been one of the great strengths of
It is also recommended, though not required, that you call a board
which is applying for a node number before assigning it a node
You may not assign a node number to a node in an area covered by
an existing network. Further, if you have nodes in an area covered
by a network in formation, those nodes must be transferred to the
You should use network mail to inform a new sysop of the node
number, as this helps to insure that the system is capable of
receiving network mail.
If a node in your network is acting in a sufficiently annoying
manner, then you can take whatever action you deem fit, according
to the circumstances of the case.
4.4 Maintaining the Nodelist
You should implement name changes, phone number changes, and so
forth in your segment of the nodelist as soon as possible after the
information is received from the affected node. You should also
on occasion send a message to every node in your network to ensure
that they are operational. If a node turns out to be "off the air"
with no prior warning, you can either mark the node down or remove
it from the nodelist. (Nodes are to be marked DOWN for a maximum
of two weeks, after which the line should be removed from the
At your discretion, you may distribute a portion of this workload
to routing hubs. In this case, you should receive the nodelists
from the Hub Coordinators within your network. You will need to
maintain a set of nodelists for each hub within your network, since
you cannot count on getting an update from each Hub Coordinator
every week. You should assemble a master nodelist for your network
every week and send it to your Regional Coordinator by the day and
time designated. It is suggested that you do this as late as is
practical, so as to accommodate any late changes, balanced with the
risk of missing the connection with your Regional Coordinator and
thus losing a week.
4.5 Making Available Policies, Nodelists and FidoNews
As a Network Coordinator you should obtain a new issue of FidoNews
and a new nodelist difference file every week from your Regional
Coordinator. The nodelist difference file is currently made
available each Saturday, and FidoNews is published each Monday.
You must make these files available to all nodes in the network,
and you are encouraged to make them available to the general public
You should also obtain the most recent versions of the Policy
documents that bind the members of your network, and make those
available to the nodes in your network. Policies are released at
sporadic intervals, so you should also inform the nodes in your
network when such events occur, and ensure the nodes are generally
familiar with the changes.
Policy, FidoNews, and the nodelist are the glue that holds us
together. Without them, we would cease to be a community, and
become just another random collection of bulletin boards.
5 Regional Coordinator Procedures
A Regional Coordinator has the following responsibilities:
1) To assign node numbers to independent nodes in the region.
2) To encourage independent nodes in the region to join existing
net works, or to form new networks.
3) To assign network numbers to networks in the region and define
4) To compile a nodelist of all of the networks and independents
in the region, and to send a copy of it to the Zone Coordinator
whenever it changes.
5) To ensure the smooth operation of networks within the region.
6) To make new nodelist difference files, Policies, and issues of
FidoNews available to the Network Coordinators in the region as
soon as is practical.
5.2 Assigning Node Numbers
It is your responsibility to assign node numbers to independent
nodes in your region. You may also change the numbers of existing
nodes in your region, though you should check with the respective
nodes before doing so. You may assign any numbers you wish, so
long as each node has a unique number within your region.
You should not assign a node number to any system until you have
received a formal request from that system by FidoNet mail. This
will ensure that the system is minimally operational. The strict
maintenance of this policy has been one of the great strengths of
It is also recommended, though not required, that you call a board
which is applying for a node number before assigning it a node
You should use network mail to inform a new sysop of the node
number, as this helps to insure that the system is capable of
receiving network mail.
If a node in your region is acting in a sufficiently annoying
manner, then you can take whatever action you deem fit, according
to the circumstances of the case.
If you receive a node number request from outside your region, you
must forward it to the most local coordinator for the requestor as
you can determine. If you receive a node number request from a new
node that is in an area covered by an existing network, then you
must forward the request to the Coordinator of that network instead
of assigning a number yourself.
If a network forms in an area for which you have independent nodes,
those nodes will be transferred to the local network as soon as is
5.3 Encouraging the Formation and Growth of Networks
One of your main duties as a Regional Coordinator is to promote the
growth of networks in your region.
You should avoid having independent nodes in your region which are
within the coverage area of a network. There are, however, certain
cases where a node should not be a member of a network, such as a
system with a large amount of inbound netmail; see section 4.2.
If several independent nodes in your region are in a local area you
should encourage them to form a network, and if necessary you may
require them to form a network. Refer to section 2.4. Note that
this is not intended to encourage the formation of trivial
networks. Obviously, one node does not make a network. The exact
number of nodes required for an effective network must be judged
according to the circumstances of the situation, and is left to
5.4 Assigning Network Numbers
It is your responsibility to assign network numbers to new networks
forming within your region. You are assigned a pool of network
numbers to use for this purpose by your Zone Coordinator. As a
part of this function, it is the responsibility of the Regional
Coordinator to define the boundaries of the networks in the region.
5.5 Maintaining the Nodelist
As a Regional Coordinator, you have a dual role in maintaining the
nodelist for your region.
First, you must maintain the list of independent nodes in your
region. You should attempt to implement name changes, phone number
changes, and so forth in this nodelist as soon as possible. You
should also on occasion send a message to every independent node
in your region to ensure that they are operational. If a node
turns out to be "off the air" with no prior warning, you can either
mark the node down or remove it from the nodelist. (Nodes are to
marked DOWN for a maximum of two weeks, after which the line should
be removed from the nodelist.)
Second, you must receive the nodelists from the Network
Coordinators within your region. You will need to maintain a set
of nodelists for each network within your region, since you cannot
count on getting an update from each Network Coordinator every
week. You should assemble a master nodelist for your region every
week and send it to your Zone Coordinator by the day and time
designated. It is suggested that you do this as late as practical,
so as to accommodate late changes, balanced with the risk of
missing the connection with your Zone Coordinator and thus losing
5.6 Geographic Exemptions
There are cases where local calling geography does not follow
FidoNet regions. In exceptional cases, exemptions to normal
geographic guidelines are agreed upon by the Regional Coordinators
and Zone Coordinator involved. Such an exemption is not a right,
and is not permanent. When a network is formed in the proper
region that would provide local calling access to the exempted
node, it is no longer exempt. An exemption may be reviewed and
revoked at any time by any of the coordinators involved.
5.7 Overseeing Network Operations
It is your responsibility as Regional Coordinator to ensure that
the networks within your region are operating in an acceptable
manner. This does not mean that you are required to operate those
networks; that is the responsibility of the Network Coordinators.
If a network grows so large that it cannot reasonably accommodate
traffic flow during the Zone Mail Hour, the Regional Coordinator
can suggest that the nodes consider the creation of one or more new
networks from that network.
It is your obligation as Regional Coordinator to maintain direct
and reasonably frequent contact with the networks in your region.
The exact method of accomplishing this is left to your discretion.
5.8 Making Available Nodelists, Policies, and FidoNews
As a Regional Coordinator, it is your responsibility to obtain the
latest nodelist difference file, network policies, and the latest
issues of FidoNews as they are published, and to make them
available to the Network Coordinators within your region. The
nodelist is posted weekly on Saturday by the Zone Coordinator, and
FidoNews is published weekly on Monday by node 1:1/23. Contact
them for more details on how to obtain the latest copies each week.
It is your responsibility to make these available to all Network
Coordinators in your region as soon as is practical after you
receive them. The method of distribution is left to your
discretion. You are not required to distribute them to any
independent nodes in your region, though you may if you wish. You
are encouraged to make all these documents available for
downloading by the general public.
6 Zone Coordinator Procedures
A Zone Coordinator for FidoNet has the primary task of maintaining
the nodelist for the Zone, sharing it with the other Zone
Coordinators, and ensuring the distribution of the master nodelist
(or difference file) to the Regions in the Zone. The Zone
Coordinator is also responsible for coordinating the distribution
of Network Policy documents and FidoNews to the Regional
Coordinators in the zone.
The Zone Coordinator is responsible for the maintenance of the
nodelist for the administrative region. The Administrative Region
has the same number as the zone, and consists of nodes assigned for
administrative purposes not related to the sending and receiving
of normal network mail.
A Zone Coordinator is charged with the task of ensuring the smooth
operation of the Zone, which is done by coordinating the activities
of the Regional Coordinators.
The Zone Coordinator defines the geographic boundaries of the
regions within the zone and sets the time for the Zone Mail Hour.
The Zone Coordinator is responsible for reviewing and approving any
geographic exemptions as described in section 5.6.
The Zone Coordinator is responsible for insuring the smooth
operation of gates between that zone and all other zones for the
transfer of interzonal mail.
7 International Coordinator Procedures
The International Coordinator has the primary task of coordinating
the creation of the master nodelist by managing the distribution
between the Zones of the Zone nodelists. The International
Coordinator is responsible for definition of new zones and for
negotiation of agreements for communication with other networks.
("Other network" in this context means other networks with which
FidoNet communicates as peer-to-peer, not "network" in the sense
of the FidoNet organizational level.)
The International Coordinator is also responsible for coordinating
the distribution of Network Policies and FidoNews to the Zone
The International Coordinator is responsible for coordinating the
activities of the Zone Coordinator Council. The International
Coordinator acts as the spokesman for the Zone Coordinator Council.
In cases not specifically covered by this document, the
International Coordinator may issue specific interpretations or
extensions to this policy. The Zone Coordinator Council may
reverse such rulings by a majority vote.
The procedures described in this section are used to ratify a new
version of FidoNet policy, which is the mechanism by which policy
A referendum on policy modification is invoked when 5% of the Net
Coordinators as determined from the first nodelist of a calendar
year, petition the International Coordinator that they wish to
consider a proposed new version of Policy. Net Coordinators of
Networks formed after the first nodelist of the year may be
8.2 Announcement and Results Notification
Proposed changes to Policy are distributed using the same structure
which is used to distribute nodelist difference files and FidoNews.
Results and announcements related to the referendum are distributed
by the coordinator structure as a part of the weekly nodelist
difference file. The International Coordinator provides copies to
the editor of FidoNews for inclusion there, although the official
announcement and voting dates are tied to nodelist distributions.
If it is adopted, the International Coordinator sets the effective
date for a new policy through announcement in the weekly nodelist
difference file. The effective date will be not more than one
month after the close of balloting.
8.3 Eligibility to Vote
Each individual FidoNet Sysop is entitled to one vote. (One
person, one vote.)
8.4 Voting Mechanism
The actual voting mechanism, including whether the ballot is secret
and how the ballots are to be collected, verified, and counted, is
left to the discretion of the International Coordinator. Ideally,
ballot collection should be by some secure message system,
conducted over FidoNet itself.
In order to provide a discussion period, the announcement of any
ballot must be made at least two weeks before the date of voting
commencement. The balloting period must be at least two weeks.
8.5 Voting on a whole Policy Document
Given that Policy is intertwined and self referencing, a relatively
simple change may require several alterations of the document. In
order to simplify the process, balloting is done on choices between
whole documents, rather than individual amendments. In the
simplest case, this means voting yea or nay to a new document. If
a number of alternatives are to be considered, they must be
presented as whole documents, from which one is chosen.
8.6 Decision of vote
A Policy amendment is considered in force if, at the end of the
balloting period, it has received a majority of the votes cast.
For example, if there were 350 eligible voters, 100 of which cast
a vote, then at least 51 affirmative votes would be required to
declare the amendment in force.
In the case of multiple policy changes which are considered on the
same ballot, a version must receive more than 50% of the votes cast
to be considered ratified. "Abstain" is a valid vote in this case,
effectively being a vote for not changing the current policy as it
simply increases the number of votes required to ratify the
9 Resolution of Disputes
The FidoNet judicial philosophy can be summed up in two rules:
1) Thou shalt not excessively annoy others.
2) Thou shalt not be too easily annoyed.
In other words, there are no hard and fast rules of conduct, but
reasonably polite behavior is expected. Also, in any dispute both
sides are examined, and action could be taken against either or
both parties. ("Judge not, lest ye be judged!")
The coordinator structure has the responsibility for defining
"excessively annoying". Like a common definition of pornography
("I can't define it, but I know it when I see it."), a hard and
fast definition of acceptable FidoNet behavior is not possible.
The guidelines in this policy are deliberately vague to provide
the freedom that the coordinator structure requires to respond to
the needs of a growing and changing community.
The first step in any dispute between sysops is for the sysops to
attempt to communicate directly, at least by netmail, preferably
by voice. Any complaint made that has skipped this most basic
communication step will be rejected.
Filing a formal complaint is not an action which should be taken
lightly. Investigation and response to complaints requires time
which coordinators would prefer to spend doing more constructive
activities. Persons who persist in filing trivial policy
complaints may find themselves on the wrong side of an excessively-
annoying complaint. Complaints must be accompanied with verifiable
evidence, generally copies of messages; a simple word-of-mouth
complaint will be dismissed out of hand.
Failure to follow the procedures herein described (in particular,
by skipping a coordinator, or involving a coordinator not in the
appeal chain) is in and of itself annoying behavior.
9.2 Problems with Another Sysop
If you are having problems with another sysop, you should first try
to work it out via netmail or voice conversation with the other
If this fails to resolve the problem, you should complain to your
Network Coordinator and the other sysop's Network Coordinator. If
one or both of you is not in a network, then complain to the
appropriate Regional Coordinator. Should this fail to provide
satisfaction, you have the right to follow the appeal process
described in section 9.5.
9.3 Problems with your Network Coordinator
If you are having problems with your Network Coordinator and feel
that you are not being treated properly, you are entitled to a
review of your situation. As with all disputes, the first step is
to communicate directly to attempt to resolve the problem.
The next step is to contact your Regional Coordinator. If your
case has merit, there are several possible courses of action,
including a change of Network Coordinators or even the disbanding
of your network. If you have been excommunicated by your Network
Coordinator, that judgement may be reversed, at which point you
will be reinstated into your net.
If you fail to obtain relief from your Regional Coordinator, you
have the right to follow the appeal process described in section
9.4 Problems with Other Coordinators
Complaints concerning annoying behavior on the part of any
coordinator are treated as in section 9.2 and should be filed with
the next level of coordinator. For example, if you feel that your
Regional Coordinator is guilty of annoying behavior (as opposed to
a failure to perform duties as a coordinator) you should file your
complaint with the Zone Coordinator.
Complaints concerning the performance of a coordinator in carrying
out the duties mandated by policy are accepted only from the level
immediately below. For example, complaints concerning the
performance of Regional Coordinators would be accepted from Network
Coordinators and independents in that region. Such complaints
should be addressed to the Zone Coordinator after an appropriate
attempt to work them out by direct communications.
9.5 Appeal Process
A decision made by a coordinator may be appealed to the next level.
Appeals must be made within two weeks of the decision which is
being appealed. All appeals must follow the chain of command; if
levels are skipped the appeal will be dismissed out of hand.
An appeal will not result in a full investigation, but will be
based upon the documentation supplied by the parties at the lower
level. For example, an appeal of a Network Coordinator's decision
will be decided by the Regional Coordinator based upon information
provided by the coordinator and the sysop involved; the Regional
Coordinator is not expected to make an independent attempt to
The appeal structure is as follows:
Network Coordinator decisions may be appealed to the appropriate
Regional Coordinator decisions may be appealed to the appropriate
Zone Coordinator decisions may be appealed to the International
The International Coordinator will make a decision and communicate
it to the Zone Coordinator Council, which may reverse it by
If your problem is with a Zone Coordinator per se, that is, a Zone
Coordinator has committed a Policy violation against you, your
complaint should be filed with the International Coordinator, who
will make a decision and submit it to the Zone Coordinator Council
for possible reversal, as described above.
9.6 Statute of Limitations
A complaint may not be filed more than 60 days after the date of
discovery of the source of the infraction, either by admission or
technical evidence. Complaints may not be filed more than 120 days
after the incident unless they involve explicitly illegal behavior.
9.7 Right to a Speedy Decision
A coordinator is required to render a final decision and notify the
parties involved within 30 days of the receipt of the complaint or
9.8 Return to Original Network
Once a policy dispute is resolved, any nodes reinstated on appeal
are returned to the local network or region to which they
geographically or technically belong.
Echomail is an important and powerful force in FidoNet. For the
purposes of Policy Disputes, echomail is simply a different flavor
of netmail, and is therefore covered by Policy. By its nature,
echomail places unique technical and social demands on the net over
and above those covered by this version of Policy. In recognition
of this, an echomail policy which extends (and does not contradict)
general Policy, maintained by the Echomail Coordinators, and
ratified by a process similar to that of this document, is
recognized by the FidoNet Coordinators as a valid structure for
dispute resolution on matters pertaining to echomail. At some
future date the echomail policy document may be merged with this
The Appendices of this document are exceptions to the normal
ratification process. Section 10.2 can be changed by the
appropriate Zone Coordinator.
10.2 Timing of Zone Mail Hour
Zone Mail Hour is observed each day, including weekends and
holidays. The time is based upon Universal Coordinated Time (UTC),
also known as Greenwich Mean time (GMT). In areas which observe
Daylight Savings Time during part of the year, the local time of
zone mail hour will change because FidoNet does not observe
Daylight Savings Time. The exact timing of Zone Mail Hour is set
for each zone by the Zone Coordinator.
In FidoNet Zone 1, Zone Mail Hour is observed from 0900 to 1000 UTC.
In each of the time zones, this is:
Eastern Standard Time - 4 AM to 5 AM
Central Standard Time - 3 AM to 4 AM
Mountain Standard Time - 2 AM to 3 AM
Pacific Standard Time - 1 AM to 2 AM
Hawaii Standard Time - 11 PM to Midnight
In FidoNet Zone 2, Zone Mail Hour is observed from 0230 to 0330 UTC.
In Fidonet Zone 3, Zone Mail Hour is observed from 1800 to 1900 UTC.
In each of the time Zones involved this is:
GMT +12 Zone 6:00 AM to 7:00 AM
GMT +10 Zone 4:00 AM to 5:00 AM
(Papua New Guinea)
GMT +9.5 Zone 3:30 AM to 4:30 AM
GMT +9 Zone 3:00 AM to 4:00 AM
GMT +8 Zone 2:00 AM to 3:00 AM
GMT +7 Zone 1:00 AM to 2:00 AM
10.3 Credits, acknowledgments, etc.
Fido and FidoNet are registered trademarks of Fido Software, Inc.
Additional mail events in local network 2.1.8
Address in message to request node 2.2
Administrative Region 6.1
Advantages to network membership 2.2
Alteration of mail 2.1.5
Answering machine 2.3
Announcement of voting results 8.2
Annoying behavior 1.3.5, 1.4.8, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.4, 2.1.6, 2.1.7,
2.1.8, 2.1.11, 2.3, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 9, 10
Appeal chain 9.5
Availability of NodeList 1.3.4
Balloting Period 8.4
Bombing run 4.2
Business use of FidoNet 1.3.6
Calling areas 1.3.2, 5.6, 5.7
Chain of command 1.2.8
Changing node numbers 4.3, 5.2
Checks and balances 1.2.8
Commercial messages 1.3.6, 2.1.4, 4.2
Complaint (policy) 184.108.40.206, 9
Contributions to FidoNews 1.3.1
Current nodelist 2.1.11
Daylight Savings Time 2.1.14
Difference file 4.5, 5.8, 8.2
Disclosing private mail 2.1.6
Discussion period 8.2
Distribution of ballots 8.2
Down 2.3, 4.4, 5.5
Downloading by users 3.6, 4.5, 5.8
EchoMail 4.2, 9.9
Effective date (policy change) 8.2
Election of coordinators 1.2
Eligibility to vote 8.3
Encryption 2.1.4, 4.2
Excessively annoying behavior 220.127.116.11, 1.3.5, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.4,
2.1.6, 2.1.7, 2.1.8, 2.1.11, 2.3, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 9, 10
Exclusivity of Zone Mail Hour 2.1.8
Excommunication 2.1.12, 4.3, 5.2, 9
Exemptions, node location 1.3.2, 5.6
Familiarity with policy 2.1.2, 2.2
availability 3.1, 4.5, 5.8
FTSC 2.1.8, 2.1.9, 2.4
Geography 1.3.2, 5.6
Guarantee of mail delivery 1.3.6
Host-routed mail 4.2
How to obtain a node number 2.2
Hub 18.104.22.168, 4.4
Illegal behavior 2.1.1, 9.6
Illegal mail 4.2
In-transit mail 22.214.171.124
Independent node 4.2, 5.2
Inter-zonal questions 1.2.6
International Coordinator 1.4.1, 1.4.9, 7
Justification of private nodes 2.1.9
Levels of FidoNet 1.2, 1.4
Local calling areas 1.3.2
Local policies 1.2, 3.3
Mail 1.2.3, 4.2
Member of area administrated 3.5
Modification of mail 2.1.5
National Mail Hour see Zone Mail Hour
boundaries 1.3.2, 5.4
forming 2.4, 5.3
hub 126.96.36.199, 4.4
numbers 2.2, 5.4
Network Coordinator 1.2.3
Network Mail Hour see Zone Mail Hour
New sysops 2.1.2, 3.6
Node numbers 4.3, 5.2
Nodelist 1.3.4, 2.2, 4.4, 5.5
availability 3.1, 4.5, 5.8
changes 4.4, 5.2
Observing mail events 2.1.8, 2.1.10
Obtaining a node number 2.2
Offensive messages 2.1.5
Orders (commercial) 1.3.6
Partial nodelist 1.3.4
Pirated software 2.1.1
Point of origin 2.1.3
Points 188.8.131.52, 2.1.3
Policy 3.1, 3.3, 4.5, 5.8
complaint 184.108.40.206, 9
familiarity with 2.1.2, 2.2
local 1.2, 3.3
Private messages 2.1.6
Private network 220.127.116.11
Private nodes 2.1.9
Problem resolution 9
Public BBS 3.6
Redundant nodes 2.1.9
Referendum 1.2.7, 8
Regional Coordinator 1.2.4
Replacing services 3.4
Requirements to be in NodeList 1.3.4, 2.1.2, 2.2
Resolution of disputes 9
Results Announcement 8.2
Review of decisions 3.7
Review of routed traffic 2.1.4
Routing 2.1.4 - 2.1.7, 4.2
Routing Hub 18.104.22.168, 4.4
Speedy decision 9.7
Standards (FTSC) 2.1.8, 2.4
Statute of limitations 9.6
Submissions to FidoNews 1.3.1
Sysop procedures 2
System operator (sysop) 1.2.1
Three-tiered networks 22.214.171.124
Time limit on decision 9.7
Timing of Zone Mail Hour 2.1.13, 2.1.14, 10.2
Trivial network 5.3
Unattended systems 2.3
Updates to nodelist 3.2
User access during ZMH 2.1.8
Voice telephone number 2.2
ZMH see Zone Mail Hour
Zone Coordinator 1.2.5, 6
Zone Coordinator Council 1.2.6, 7.1
Zone Mail Hour 1.3.3, 2.1.8
timing 2.1.13, 2.1.14, 10.2
Zones 1.2.5, 1.3.2